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Table 3 Factors associated with presence of symptoms of LSS in patients with radiographic LSS

From: Characteristics and determinants of clinical symptoms in radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis in a tertiary health care centre in sub-Saharan Africa

Parameter aOR (95% CI) p value baOR p value
Age 1.023 (0.993–1.052) 0.130 1.006 (0.972–1.041) 0.732
Gender (Females) 0.969 (0.465–2.019) 0.932 0.508 (0.199–1.295) 0.156
Family history of CLBP 5.388 (2.404–12.076) <0.001 3.885 (1.531–9.858) 0.004
Grand multiparity 3.500 (1.238–9.891) 0.018 1.596 (0.435–5.861) 0.481
BMI Class     
 Normal Ref.
 Overweight 1.156 (0.426–3.132) 0.776
 Obese 18.200 (5.551–59.670) <0.001
High waist circumference 2.442 (1.151–5.182) 0.020
Sitting height 0.981 (0.925–1.039) 0.511 1.057 (0.977–1.144) 0.165
Relative sitting height 1.049 (0.130–1.184) 0.434 1.087 (0.934–1.266) 0.279
Radiographic Stenosis 0.991 0.956
 Central Ref. Ref.
 Foraminal 0.949 (0.450–2.001) 0.890 0.871 (0.352–2.153) 0.871
 Lateral 0.999 0.999
Type of vertebra lesion 0.261 0.800
 None Ref. Ref
 IAJOH 1.692 (0.687–4.167) 0.253 1.404 (0.469–4.202) 0.544
 Osteophytes 0.547 (0.181–1.658) 0.286 0.662 (0.177–2.485) 0.542
 Listhesis 0.999 0.999
 Tumoral 0.999 0.999
Vertebra lesion level
 L1 2.113 (0.371–12.021) 0.399 5.703 (0.959–33.911) 0.056
 L2 1.910 (0.434–8.413) 0.392 5.298 (1.131–24.526) 0.034
 L3 3.111 (1.097–8.825) 0.033 6.733 (2.024–22.398) 0.002
 L4 1.902 (0.897–4.033) 0.094 2.980 (1.145–7.757) 0.025
 L5 1.308 (0.563–3.035) 0.532 1.399 (0.494–3.961) 0.527
 Multi-level 1.818 (0.865–3.821) 0.115 3.798 (1.408–10.246) 0.008
Type of disc lesion 0.197   0.509
 None Ref. Ref.
 IDD 1.980 (0.614–6.382) 0.253 2.933 (0.732–11.751) 0.129
 IDP 1.833 (0.451–7.454) 0.397 1.596 (0.282–9.039) 0.597
 IDH 2.200 (0.517–9.356) 0.286 3.433 (0.645–18.263) 0.148
 HP 2.200 (0.270–17.924) 0.461 1.244 (0.086–17.912) 0.872
 DDP 4.125 (1.322–12.872) 0.015 4.084 (1.041–16.021) 0.044
 DDH 4.840 (1.326–17.666) 0.017 2.641 (0.532–13.115) 0.235
Disc lesion level
 L1-L2 0.999 0.999
 L2-L3 7.980 (0.949–67.112) 0.056 9.122 (0.941–88.425) 0.056
 L3-L4 8.486 (2.695–26.722) <0.001 9.436 (2.497–35.653) 0.001
 L4-L5 3.797 (1.754–8.221) 0.001 3.331 (1.312–8.457) 0.011
 L5-S1 0.782 (0.371–1.648) 0.518 0.592 (0.240–1.462) 0.256
 Multi-level 3.285 (1.524–7.079) 0.002 2.542 (1.016–6.361) 0.046
Ligamentum Flavum hypertrophy 0.841 (0.401–1.766) 0.648 0.708 (0.289–1.735) 0.450
  1. OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CLBP chronic low back pain, IAJOH inter apophysial joint osteoarthritis and hypertrophy, IDD isolated degenerative disc, IDP isolated disc protrusion, IDH Isolated disc herniation, HP herniation and protrusion, DDP degenerative disc and protrusion, DDH degenerative disc and herniation
  2. aOdds ratio of having symptoms of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis on bivariate analysis
  3. badjusted odds ratio of having symptoms of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis on multivariate analysis, adjusted for BMI class