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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of cases

From: Characteristics and determinants of clinical symptoms in radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis in a tertiary health care centre in sub-Saharan Africa

Parameter Value
Age of onset (years), mean ± SD 50.3 ± 11.6
Low back pain, n (%) 57 (100)
Lower limb numbness, n (%) 48 (84.2)
Lower limb weakness, n (%) 47 (82.5)
Urinary incontinence, n (%) 1 (1.8)
Saddle anaesthesia, n (%) 1 (1.8)
Radiculopathy, n (%) 56 (98.2)
 L4 13 (22.8)
 L5 39 (68.4)
 S1 4 (7.0)
Neurogenic claudication, n (%) 56 (98.2)
Nature of pain, n (%)
 Cramping 44 (77.2)
 Burning 12 (21.1)
 Ill defined 1 (1.8)
Aggravating factors, n (%)
 Walking long distances 56 (98.2)
 Standing erect 56 (98.2)
 Coughing 46 (80.7)
 Defecation 38 (66.7)
Relieving Factor, n (%)
 Leaning forward/sitting/stooping 55 (96.5)
Timing, n (%)  
 Intermittent 33 (57.9)
 Nocturnal 5 (8.8)
aPain Grading, mean ± SD 8.4 ± 1.1
Impact on daily activities, n (%)
 Reduced walking distance 56 (98.2)
 Impaired routine daily activities 55 (96.5)
Physical examination, n (%)
 Altered gait 51 (89.5)
 Lumbar tenderness 51 (89.5)
bMotor deficits 13 (22.8)
 Abnormal (reduced) reflexes 20 (35.1)
 Positive straight leg raise test 41 (71.9)
  1. aPain grading on VAS
  2. bMotor power < 5