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Table 2 Presentation of averages, standard deviations and p-values of judgment criteria for group A and group B

From: Are paraspinous intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin a (BoNT-A) efficient in the treatment of chronic low-back pain? A randomised, double-blinded crossover trial

   Number of patients (n) A/B Mean group A Standard deviation group A Mean group B Standard deviation group B p-value
Average lumbar pain over last 8 days by visual analogue scale (/100 mm) D0 18/19 67.70 24.64 60.35 28.07 p = 0.43
D30 18/19 63.12 18.92 63.12 18.92 p = 0.75
D90 15/16 62.60 27.39 58.43 24.66 p = 0.80
D120 15/16 60.87 26.83 55.87 32.50 p = 0.70
Average root pain over last month by visual analogue scale (/100 mm) D30 18/19 60.29 22.99 53.47 33.88 p = 0.45
D90 15/16 42.07 37.40 27.57 33.05 p = 0.52
D120 15/16 56.73 25.33 46.20 30.42 p = 0.70
Number of days with significant or very significant pain D30 18/19 13.29 9.88 15.18 12.82 p = 0.55
D90 15/16 11.43 10.45 11.71 16.94 p = 0.44
Functional disability related to low-back pain by Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (/100) D0 18/19 51.53 16.19 52.35 20.16 p = 0.89
D30 18/19 53.76 13.18 52.29 20.74 p = 0.77
D90 15/16 53.07 17.75 45.93 22.82 p = 0.47
D120 16/16 52.87 21.69 42.93 23.70 p = 0.48
Inability to work during last 30 days (/30) D0 18/19 11.00 14.56 11.06 14.55 p = 0.99
D30 18/18 12.41 15.17 9.56 14.25 p = 0.35
D90 15/16 12.41 14.59 9.69 17.93 p = 0.46
D120 15/16 8.00 13.73 12.00 15.21 p = 0.34
Estimated impact of low-back pain on quality of life (/100) D0 18/19 71.41 21.70 64.47 24.61 p = 0.37
D30 18/19 68.71 18.85 64.06 23.33 p = 0.44
D90 15/16 63.47 23.72 58.57 23.33 p = 0.38
D120 15/16 61.00 30.01 60.67 29.63 p = 0.96
Number of days when pain medication or anti-inflammatories were necessary in last 30 days (/30) D0 18/19 17.06 13.65 15.35 14.69 p = 0.71
D30 18/19 16.06 13.21 13.41 13.44 p = 0.51
D90 15/16 15.73 13.85 11.50 13.82 p = 0.79
D120 15/16 14.80 14.87 13.53 14.54 p = 0.86
Patients’ assessment of efficacy of treatment (/100) D30 18/19 0.76 1.15 0.94 1.14 p = 0.62
D90 15/16 1.33 1.80 1.43 1.60 p = 1.00
D120 15/16 1.47 1.77 1.73 1.62 p = 1.00
Spinal flexibility measured by Schoeber Macrae’s test (cm) D0 18/19 5.00 2.34 4.21 1.86 p = 0.22
D30 18/19 4.76 1.88 4.32 1.67 p = 0.48
D90 15/16 4.00 1.18 4.54 1.31 p = 0.23
D120 15/16 4.23 1.55 5.53 2.28 p = 0.18
Hand-ground distance (cm) D0 18/19 26.17 13.32 25.64 14.03 p = 0.93
D30 18/19 26.35 14.02 26.85 12.89 p = 0.92
D90 15/16 24.87 14.51 16.79 10.17 p = 0.35
D120 15/16 27.53 12.18 21.93 13.08 p = 0.25
Isokinetic maximum strength (n/m) D0 16/17 116.00 45.53 126.40 63.41 p = 0.78
D30 15/18 120.93 53.30 134.40 63.67 p = 0.70
D120 13/14 126.69 67.20 135.07 50.35 p = 0.70
Isokinetic endurance (n/m) D0 16/17 100.27 51.63 102.33 63.24 p = 0.81
D30 15/17 96.07 53.38 108.73 69.00 p = 0.76
D120 15/14 103.17 63.74 111.79 57.67 p = 0.65
Isokinetic maximum force ratio flexors/extensors (%) D0 16/17 115.85 31.13 119.72 38.95 p = 0.36
D30 15/17 122.93 33.83 107.86 24.41 p = 0.16
D120 13/14 111.54 24.29 102.88 23.53 p = 0.72
  1. Group A: all 17 patients assessed during 120 days after BoNT-A injections, group B: all 17 patients assessed during 120 days after placebo injections