Skip to main content

Table 3 Comparison of gout patients with and without disability

From: Associated factors with functional disability and health-related quality of life in Chinese patients with gout: a case-control study

  HAQ-DI < 0.5 score (n = 178) HAQ-DI ≥ 0.5 score (n = 48) p
Gender, maleb 168 (94.4) 46 (95.8) 0.691
Age (years)a 52.83 ± 15.64 54.46 ± 16.34 0.527
BMI (kg/m2)a 25.68 ± 4.17 25.51 ± 4.28 0.807
WHRC 0.95(0.91–0.98) 0.96(0.94–0.98) 0.375
Place of residenceb    0.518
 City 102 (57.3) 25 (52.1)  
 Country 76 (42.7) 23 (47.9)  
Marital statusb    0.392
 Married 166 (93.3) 43 (89.6)  
 Single 12 (6.7) 5 (10.4)  
Educationb    0.109
  ≤ 9 years 77 (43.3) 27 (56.2)  
 >9 years 101 (56.7) 21 (43.8)  
Employment statusb    0.872
 Employed 139 (78.1) 38 (79.2)  
 Unemployed 39 (21.9) 10 (20.8)  
Income/year (RMB)b    0.153
 <15,000 63 (35.4) 20 (41.7)  
 15,000–33,000 56 (33.2) 19 (39.6)  
 >33,000 59 (33.1) 9 (18.8)  
Medical insurance, yesb 168 (94.4) 48 (100.0) 0.093
Comorbilitiesb    
 Hypertension 73 (41.0) 23 (47.9) 0.390
 DM 14 (7.9) 9 (18.8) 0.027
 Hyperlipidemia 21 (11.8) 4 (8.3) 0.497
 Cardiovascular disease 15 (8.4) 7 (14.6) 0.269
 Nephropathy 12 (6.7) 5 (10.4) 0.202
Disease duration (year)C 5.00(1.54–10.00) 7.00(3.00–14.79) 0.020
Number of flares/last yearC 3.00(1.00–10.00) 8.00(2.88–24.25) 0.003
Stage of goutb    0.087
 Asymptomatic (hyperuricemia) 7 (3.9) 1 (2.1)  
 Acute phase 102 (57.3) 26 (54.2)  
 Intercritical phase 33 (18.5) 4 (8.3)  
 Chronic phase 36 (20.2) 17 (35.4)  
Total pain (VAS)C 3.00(0.00–7.00) 5.50(5.00–8.00) <0.001
Number of tophib    0.027
 No 115 (64.6) 21 (43.8)  
 1 27 (15.2) 10 (20.8)  
  ≥ 2 36 (20.2) 17 (35.4)  
sUA (μmol/L)a 462.79 ± 1165.80 488.02 ± 118.57 0.184
Presence of tender joints, yesb 146 (82.0) 44 (91.7) 0.105
Presence of swollen joints, yesb 125 (70.2) 48 (100.0) 0.349
Urate lowering therapyb    
 Allopurinol 15 (8.4) 1 (2.1) 0.128
 Febuxostat 59 (33.1) 21 (43.8) 0.173
Any anti-inflammatory drugsb    
 Colchicine 108 (60.7) 38 (79.2) 0.017
 NSAID 81 (45.5) 24 (50.0) 0.580
 Corticosteroids 50 (28.1) 21 (43.8) 0.038
Depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10 score)b 13 (7.3) 21 (43.8) <0.001
Anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 10 score)b 5 (2.8) 7 (14.6) 0.004
  1. SD: standard deviation; IQR: interquartile range; BMI: body mass index; WHR: waist-hip ratio; DM: diabetes; VAS: visual analog scale; sUA: serum uric acid; NSAID: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, HAQ-DI: health assessment questionnaire-disability index; PHQ-9: patient health questionnaire; GAD-7: generalized anxiety disorder
  2. p values were obtained with the two-tailed t test, chi-square test and/or Mann-Whitney U test based on the type and distribution of variables
  3. P numbers of entries with significance are shown in italics
  4. aMean ± SD.bNumber (percentage). CMedian (IQR)