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Table 5 Summary of number of studies reporting prognostic factors for poor outcome in acute lateral ankle sprain

From: Prognostic factors for recovery following acute lateral ankle ligament sprain: a systematic review

No Follow-up time points/Baseline prognostic factors explored Number of studies reporting an association (n)
1. At short-term follow-up (≤8 weeks)
Age 1 [49]
Swelling 1 [43]
Reduced range of motion 1 [43]
Palpation stress test scores 1 [42]
Self-reported physical limitations 1 [44]
Self-reported athletic ability 1 [43]
Injury severity rating 2 [42, 49]
Ankle function score 2 [42, 48]
Weight bearing ability / status 3 [42, 44, 49]
2. At medium-term (≤4 months)
Age 1 [49]
Non-inversion injury 1 [49]
Pain (medial joint line) at week 4 1 [49]
Pain (on WB DF) at week 4 1 [49]
WB status 1 [49]
3. At long-term (>4 months)
Age 1 [45]
Female gender 1 [45]
MRI, severity grading 1 [46]
MRI, number of ligaments 1 [46]
MRI, bone bruise 1 [46]
Pain (at rest) at 3 months 1 [50]
Re-sprain within 3 months 1 [50]
  1. Abbreviations: WB weight-bearing; DF ankle dorsiflexion; MRI magnetic resonance imaging