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Table 3 Prognostic factors for medium-term (≤ 4 months) outcome in acute lateral ankle sprain

From: Prognostic factors for recovery following acute lateral ankle ligament sprain: a systematic review

Study Primary outcome measure Independent variable(s) Analysis Prognostic factors for medium-term outcome
O’Connor et al. [49] Karlsson ankle function scores
(0-100) at 4 months.
Baseline. Age (years); WB status (FWB, FWB with pain, PWB, NWB); injury mechanism (inversion / other).
4 weeks. Pain on WB ankle DF; medial joint line pain (yes/no).
Univariate regression, step-wise multivariate regression. 4 months: baseline combined age (β = −.26, p = .01), WB status (β = −.23, p = .25), & injury mechanism (β = −.25, p = .17).
Adjusted R 2 = .34, p < .01.
4 months: 4 week combined pain on WB ankle DF (β = .60, p < .001), medial joint line pain (β = .24, p = .07).
Adjusted R 2 = .49, p < .01.
  1. Abbreviations: WB weight-bearing; FWB full weight-bearing status; PWB partial weight-bearing status; NWB non-weight-bearing status; DF dorsiflexion, β, standardised beta; R, 2 the coefficient of determination