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Table 2 Prognostic factors for short-term (≤ 8 weeks) outcome in acute lateral ankle sprain

From: Prognostic factors for recovery following acute lateral ankle ligament sprain: a systematic review

Study Primary outcome measure Independent variables Analysis Prognostic factors for short-term outcome
de Bie et al. [42] Healed or not healed at 2 & 4 weeks. Healed = AFS >75 (0-100) & palpation/ligament stress test score < 2 (0-12). AFS (0-100) ≤35, doctor severity grading (0-10), palpation/ligament stress test score (0-12). Multivariate logistic regression 2 weeks: Baseline AFS ≤ 35 predicted recovery status.
Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 100%.
4 weeks: Combined baseline AFS ≤ 35, severity grading, & palpation/ligament stress test score predicted recovery status.
Sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 80%.
Wilson & Gansneder [43] Number of days to return to full sports practice or competition (11.9 ± 6.6 days). Joint swelling (ml), sagittal plane ROM loss (°), objective WB activity score (0-6), self-reported athletic ability score (VAS, 0-100). Hierarchical regression Combined swelling (β = −.02) & ROM loss (β = −.08). R 2 = .34, p = .023.
Combined WB activity score (β = −.55) & self-reported ability score (β = −.39). R 2 = .33, p = .004.
Combined swelling, ROM loss, WB activity score, & self-reported athletic ability score. Adjusted R 2 = .59; p = .001.
Cross et al. [44] Number of days to return to sport (14.7 ± 8.8 days). SF36PF (0-100), Self-reported global function (0-100%), objective ambulation status (1-7). Univariate regression, stepwise multivariate regression. SF36PF. R 2 = .28, p = .016.
Self-reported global function. R 2 = .22, p = .036.
Objective ambulation status. R 2 = .22, p = .019.
Combined SF36PF, self-reported global function, & objective ambulation status. Adjusted R 2 = .34, p < .01.
van der Wees et al. [48] Global perceived effect ≥2 (1 = recovered, 2-7 = not recovered) at 2 weeks. AFS (0-100) ≤40. Sensitivity & specificity using sample with ≤5 days duration of injury (n = 53) 2 weeks: Baseline AFS ≤ 40 predicted recovery status.
Sensitivity = 76%, specificity = 63%.
O’Connor et al. [49] Karlsson function score (0-100) at 4 weeks. Age (years), injury grade (1, 2, 2+), WB status (FWB, FWB with pain, PWB, NWB). Univariate regression, step-wise multivariate regression. 4 weeks: Combined age (β = −.32, p = .001), injury grade (β = −.23, p = .003), & WB status (β = −.34, p = .038).
Adjusted R 2 = .34, p < .01.
  1. Abbreviations: AFS ankle function score; ° degrees; VAS visual analogue scale; R 2 the coefficient of determination; β standardised beta; ROM range of motion; WB weight-bearing; SF36PF short form-36 physical function scale; FWB full weight-bearing status; PWB partial weight-bearing status; NWB non-weight-bearing status