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Table 1 Key characteristics of included studies

From: Prognostic factors for recovery following acute lateral ankle ligament sprain: a systematic review

Study Design Setting Sample size Sample characteristics Time since injury Injury severity Follow-up
de Bie et al. [42] Prospective cohort The Netherlands
1 x Hospital FAD
N = 35 at baseline
N = 33 at 2 weeks
N = 31 at 4 weeks
General population
N = 22 M, 13 F
28 ± 10 (13-59) y
NR NR 2 weeks
4 weeks
Wilson & Gansneder [43] Prospective cohort USA
1 x University
N = 24 at baseline
N = 21 at follow-up
Athletes
N = 13 M, 8 F
20 ± 2 y
67.8 ± 15.2 h Grade I, II 11.9 ± 6.6 days
Cross et al. [44] Prospective cohort USA
1 x University
N = 20 at baseline
N = 20 at follow-up
Athletes
N = 7 M, 13 F
19 ± 1 (18-21) y
≤ 24 h NR 14.7 ± 8.8 (3–40) days
Akacha et al. [45] Retrospective cohort England
8 x Hospital ED
N = 584 at baseline
N = 553 at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, & 9 months
General population
N = 321 M, 232 F
30 ± 11 (16-72) y
≤ 7 days Severe (NWB at 3 days) 4 weeks
12 weeks
9 months
Langner et al. [46] Prospective cohort Germany
1 x Hospital ED
N = 38 at baseline
N = 26 at 6 months
N = NR at 12 months
General population
N = 18 M, 20 F
38 ± 13 (20-75) y
< 24 h ATFL Grade I (27%), II (27%), III (46%) 6 months
12 months
van Middelkoop et al. [47] Retrospective cohort The Netherlands
32 x GP
1 x Hospital ED
N = 102 at baseline
N = 95 at 3 months
N = 80 at 12 months
General population
N = 59 M, 43 F
37 ± 12 (18-60) y
≤ 7 days Mild (42%), moderate or severe (44%), unknown (14%) 3 months
12 months
van der Wees et al. [48] Prospective cohort The Netherlands
20 x Primary care Physiotherapists
N = 107 at baseline
N = 33 at 2 weeks
General population
N = 65 M, 42 F
32 ± 14 y
8.7 ± 8.9 days
≤ 5 days N = 53
> 5 days N = 54
Light (50%), severe (50%) 2 weeks
O’Connor et al. [49] Retrospective cohort Northern Ireland
1 x Hospital ED
1 x University sports injury clinic
N = 101 at baseline
N = NR at 4 weeks
N = 85 at 4 months
General population, athletes.
N = 69 M, 31 F
27 ± 10 (16-58) y
< 7 days
40 ± 36 h
Grade I (26%), II (63%), II+ (11%) 4 weeks
4 months
McKeon et al. [50] Prospective cohort USA
7 x High schools
N = 204 sprains at baseline
N = 198 sprains in analysis
High school athletes ≤ 24 h Time to return to play. Same day (23.7%), next day (21.2%), 3 days (29.3%), 7 days (11.6%), 10 days (8.6%), >22 days (5.6%) Time to return to play. Same day, next day, 3 days, 7 days, 10 days, 21 days, >22 days.
  1. Abbreviations: FAD first aid department; N number; M males; F females; y years; NR not reported, NWB non-weight bearing status; ED emergency department; ATFL anterior talofibular ligament; GP general practice primary care