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Table 3 General population studies. Prevalence and incidence rates of musculoskeletal extremity complaints in the younger age groups

From: Prevalence and incidence of musculoskeletal extremity complaints in children and adolescents. A systematic review

  0–9 years of age 9–12 years of age 2–19 years of age
  Incidence Prevalence, % Incidence Prevalence, % Prevalence, %
Anatomic Region/ Site Weekly, % IRa Often Weekly 12 months IRa 2 weeks Weekly 12 months
Upper extremity
in general
0.2 [14]   2.6–6.2 [51] 0.5 [14] 4.8 [47]   0.4 [40] 5.5–7 [41] 5.1 [35]
Shoulder   0.06 [39]     0.01 [54]    
Elbow   0.03 [39]     0.01 [54]    
Wrist/hand/fingers   0.14 [39] 3 [53]    0.11 [54]b    
Lower extremity
in general
1.0 [14]   14.6–21.1 [51] 4.1 [14] 10.9 [47]   4.1 [40] 18.3 [15]18–19 [41] 5.8 [35]
Hip/groin   0.06 [39]     0.03 [54]   3.4 [15]  
Thigh   0.07 [39]       10.3 [15]  
Knee   0.40 [39] 11 [53]    0.05 [54] 1.8 [40]c 12.4 [15]  
Shin   0.12 [39]        
Ankle/ft   0.71 [39]     0.19 [54]d 2.4 [40] 10.6 [15]  
  1. [x]: reference number of included study
  2. Bold: the study received high risk of bias in the quality assessment
  3. a Incidence Rate per 1000 physical activity units
  4. b Anatomical site relates to both lower arm, wrist, hand and fingers
  5. c Anatomical site relates to both hip and knee
  6. d Anatomical site relates to both shin and ankle/ft