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Table 3 Association between participants’ preoperative ASA score classification and recovery of physical and mental functioning during the first year following hospital discharge for hip-fracture surgery: General Estimating Equation (GEE) analysis

From: The relationship between preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification scores and functional recovery following hip-fracture surgery

  Time (months post-discharge) Group
Outcome variable 1 3a 6a 12a ASA 1-2b   ASA 3
  (%)/Mean β (%)/Mean β (%)/Mean β (%)/Mean (%)/Mean β (%)/Mean
Walking recovery, %c 39% 0.97 63%§ 1.30 70%§† 1.4 73%§† 70% 0.38 53%#
CBI score, meand 71.91 10.27 82.18§ 13.86 85.77§† 1.39 85.85§† 81.24 13 81.62
HRQOL scores, meand
 BP 71.35 2.95 74.31 10.08 81.43§† 2.83 74.18 72.89 4.86 77.75#
 GH 58.06 −2.47 55.60 0.64 58.71 −7.09 50.98§†• 58.31 −4.95 53.36#
 VT 57.8 3.56 61.37 6.05 63.85§ 1.43 59.24 59.85 1.43 61.28
 SF 62.76 −0.93 61.50 12.06 74.49§† 7.60 70.63§† 67.25 −0.28 66.97
 RE 66.88 13.99 80.86§ 19.94 86.81§† 18.08 85.68§ 79.65 0.82 80.47
 MH 62.76 2.95 65.72 4.91 67.67§ 2.79 65.55 65.89 −0.93 64.96
 PF 32.72 −2.45 30.27 24.22 56.94§† 11.64 44.36§• 43.05 −3.95 39.10
 RP 27.39 −2.46 24.93 13.83 41.23§† 12.14 39.54§† 32.81 0.93 33.74
  1. Abbreviations: CBI Chinese Barthel Index, (activities of daily living); HRQOL = health related quality of life; BP bodily pain; GH general health perception; VT vitality; SF social functioning; RE role disability due to emotional problems; MH general mental health; PF physical functioning; RP role disability due to physical health problems
  2. aTime post-discharge compared with 1 month
  3. bParticipant group ASA 1–2 compared with ASA 3
  4. cPercentage was calculated only for categorical outcome variables
  5. dMean = adjusted mean obtained after controlling for time, gender, age, type of surgery, and pre-fracture CBI performance data set membership
  6. #Indicates a significant difference between ASA 1–2 and ASA 3 group, p < .05
  7. §Indicates time post-discharge was significantly different compared with 1 month for both ASA 1–2 and ASA 3, p < .05
  8. Indicates a significant difference compared with 3 months for both ASA 1–2 and ASA 3, p < .05
  9. Indicates a significant difference compared with 6 months for both ASA 1–2 and ASA 3, p < .05