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Table 2 Comparison of outcomes for participants grouped by preoperative ASA scores following hip-fracture surgery within 1-,3-, 6- and 12-month post-discharge

From: The relationship between preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification scores and functional recovery following hip-fracture surgery

  Participant Group  
Outcome Post-discharge ASA 1–2 ASA 3 p-Valuea
Participants within 1 month, n (% remaining) 114 (100%) 112 (100%)  
 Mortality 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Institutionalization 2 (1.8%) 7 (6.3%) .08
 Emergency room visits 7 (6.1%) 9 (8.1%) .57
 Hospital readmissions 6 (5.3%) 13 (11.6%) .09
 Recovery of walking ability 55 (48.2%) 33 (29.5%) .004
 CBIb score (mean ± SD) 73.46 ± 19.68 68.57 ± 19.43 .06
 HRQOLc Subscale Scores (mean ± SD)
  Bodily pain 69.58 ± 24.47 71.96 ± 25.09 .47
  General health 62.16 ± 23.41 50.02 ± 25.46 .006
  Vitality 57.86 ± 24.55 58.38 ± 24.27 .87
  Social functioning 62.61 ± 30.69 61.48 ± 29.82 .78
  Role disability/emotional 66.07 ± 44.29 66.97 ± 44.09 .88
  Mental health 62.40 ± 22.58 63.09 ± 19.78 .81
  Physical functioning 33.93 ± 38.13 28.64 ± 38.43 .30
  Role disability/physical 28.57 ± 42.82 22.48 ± 37.88 .26
Participants within 3 months, n (% remaining) 108 (94.7%) 107 (95.5%)  
 Mortality 1 (0.9%) 2 (1.8%) .55
 Institutionalization 3 (2.8%) 4 (3.7%) .71
 Emergency room visits 5 (4.6%) 4 (3.7%) .73
 Hospital readmissions 4 (3.7%) 5 (4.6%) .73
 Recovery of walking ability 79 (73.8%) 53 (48.6%) < .001
 CBIb score (mean ± SD) 83.19 ± 17.94 80.09 ± 17.52 .20
 HRQOLc Subscale Scores (mean ± SD)
  Bodily pain 72.10 ± 23.12 75.52 ± 24.89 .31
  General health 58.62 ± 24.26 52.56 ± 24.14 .07
  Vitality 61.94 ± 21.33 62.43 ± 22.17 .87
  Social functioning 59.98 ± 24.60 62.14 ± 28.25 .56
  Role disability/emotional 79.17 ± 38.36 81.88 ± 35.78 .60
  Mental health 67.25 ± 19.49 65.18 ± 21.44 .47
  Physical functioning 31.35 ± 25.35 26.36 ± 26.15 .17
  Role disability/physical 20.91 ± 34.33 25.73 ± 38.58 .34
Participants within 6 months, n (% remaining) 102 (89.5%) 97 (86.6%)  
 Mortality 2 (1.9%) 4 (3.7%) .41
 Institutionalization 3 (3.0%) 3 (3.1%) .97
 Emergency room visits 9 (8.9%) 10 (10.5%) .70
 Hospital readmissions 7 (6.9%) 11 (11.6%) .26
 Recovery of walking ability 75 (73.5%) 64 (64.6%) 0.17
 CBIb score (mean ± SD) 85.49 ± 22.37 86.13 ± 17.39 .82
 HRQOLc Subscale Scores (mean ± SD)
  Bodily pain 78.10 ± 24.69 83.74 ± 22.28 .10
  General health 60.11 ± 23.09 57.72 ± 23.87 .49
  Vitality 63.68 ± 21.38 65.16 ± 21.90 .64
  Social functioning 73.08 ± 26.54 75.41 ± 27.60 .56
  Role disability/emotional 85.51 ± 32.89 88.30 ± 30.80 .55
  Mental health 68.04 ± 20.57 68.09 ± 18.98 .95
  Physical functioning 55.75 ± 32.47 57.23 ± 34.75 .76
  Role disability/physical 33.60 ± 40.96 47.85 ± 45.54 .03
Participants within 12 months, n (% remaining) 84 (73.7%) 81 (72.3%)  
 Mortality 3 (3.1%) 8 (8.1%) .13
 Institutionalization 1 (1.2%) 3 (3.6%) .31
 Emergency room visits 3 (3.6%) 8 (10.0%) .10
 Hospital readmissions 5 (6.0%) 14 (17.3%) .02
 Recovery of walking ability 64 (76.2%) 56 (67.5%) .21
 CBIb score (mean ± SD) 85.71 ± 26.94 87.04 ± 19.55 .71
 HRQOLc Subscale Scores (mean ± SD)
  Bodily pain 70.04 ± 26.46 77.75 ± 25.83 .08
  General health 53.77 ± 23.67 50.60 ± 25.24 .45
  Vitality 60.59 ± 20.25 59.93 ± 21.91 .85
  Social functioning 74.30 ± 27.13 66.37 ± 30.30 .10
  Role disability/emotional 91.30 ± 25.98 82.87 ± 37.11 .12
  Mental health 70.29 ± 19.03 63.14 ± 22.70 .047
  Physical functioning 50.70 ± 29.76 41.99 ± 31.97 .09
  Role disability/physical 45.07 ± 43.02 38.19 ± 45.57 .36
  1. a p-value determined by student’s t-test, two-tailed
  2. bCBI (Chinese Barthel Index): higher score indicates greater independence
  3. cHRQOL (Health Related Quality of Life); higher score indicates better health outcomes