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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics for all hip-fractured participants, and differences between groups: preoperative ASA scores determined by independent t-test (a) or Chi-squared tests

From: The relationship between preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification scores and functional recovery following hip-fracture surgery

  Total Participants Groups  
Variable (n = 226) ASA 1–2 (n = 114) ASA 3 (n = 112) p-Value
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 78.22 ± 7.70 77.06 ± 7.40 79.39 ± 7.85 .023a
Gender, n (%)     .14
 Male 78 (34.5%) 34 (29.8%) 44 (39.2%)  
 Female 148 (65.5%) 80 (70.2%) 68 (60.7%)  
Hospital stay (days) (mean ± SD) 9.96 ± 5.06 10.02 ± 4.91 9.89 ± 5.24 .85
Education, n (%)     .92
 None 133 (58.5%) 69 (60.6%) 64 (57.1%)  
 Primary 52 (23.0%) 24 (21.1%) 28 (25.0%)  
 High School 27 (11.9%) 14 (12.3%) 13 (11.6%)  
 College or above 14 (6.2%) 7 (6.1%) 7 (6.2%)  
Fracture classification, n (%)     .73
 Femoral neck 113 (50.0%) 57 (50.0%) 56 (50.0%)  
 Intertrochanteric 104 (46.0%) 52 (45.6%) 52 (46.4%)  
 Subtrochanteric 9 (4.0%) 5 (4.4%) 4 (3.6%)  
Type of surgery, n (%)     .76
 Arthroplasty 87 (38.5%) 45 (39.5%) 42 (37.5%)  
 Internal fixation 139 (61.5%) 69 (60.5%) 70 (62.5%)  
Number of comorbidities (mean ± SD) 0.90 ± 0.85 0.77 ± 0.86 1.03 ± 0.82 .024a
Presence of comorbidity (type), n (%)
 Cardiovascular disease 46 (20.4%) 17 (14.9%) 29 (25.9%) .04
 Hypertension 99 (43.8%) 46 (40.4%) 53 (47.3%) .29
 Diabetes mellitus 58 (25.7%) 25 (21.0%) 33 (29.7%) .20
Unable to walk independently pre-fracture, n (%) 17 (7.5%) 5 (4.4%) 12 (10.7%) .07
CBI performance, pre-fracture (mean ± SD) 97.15 ± 6.39 97.72 ± 5.84 96.56 ± 6.88 .174a
  1. Abbreviations: ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists; SD standard deviation; CBI Chinese Barthel Index
  2. a P-value determined by independent t-test, otherwise determined by Chi-square test