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Table 3 Comparison of demographic and baseline outcome data by recommended final treatment for all participants and for those treated at HIAE and adjusted mean differences in change scores for those treated at HIAE

From: Second opinion for degenerative spinal conditions: an option or a necessity? A prospective observational study

  All participants Participants treated at HIAE
  Surgery (N = 143)b CM (N = 235)a   Surgery (N = 67) CM (N = 99)   Surgery (N = 67) CM (N = 99)  
   p-valuec Baseline p-valuec 12 months Adjusted mean difference between groups (95% CI)d
    N   N    N   N   
Female, N (%) 75 (52) 120 (51) 0.8 67 30 (45) 99 47 (47) 0.7      
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)    Mean (SD)   Mean (SD)    Mean (SD)   Mean (SD)  
Age, years 45.2 (12.6) 42.3 (10.7) 0.02 67 44.3 (10.6) 99 46.8 (14.5) 0.2      
Pain (0 to 10)e 7.8 (2.2) 7.3 (2.1) 0.03 67 7.6 (2.4) 99 7.0 (2.2) 0.1 57 3.1 (3.0) 77 3.4 (3.3) 0.53 (−0.53 to 1.60)
SF 36 (0–100)f
 VT 38.5 (23.5) 38.5 (21.2) 0.99 67 41.6 (26.5) 98 39.4 (21.5) 0.6 54 63.3 (23.4) 79 61.5 (24.3) −1.6 (−9.1 to 5.9)
 PF 32.9 (17.5) 35.3 (18.4) 0.2 66 38.6 (19.5) 98 38.9 (19.5) 0.9 54 64.4 (23.7) 79 62.2 (25.6) −3.3 (−11.4 to 4.7)
 BP 22.8 (18.1) 28.2 (18.3) 0.006 67 25.7 (20.8) 98 30.2 (19.9) 0.2 54 63.4 (27.5) 79 58.2 (30.5) −7.3 (−17.4 to 2.9)
 GH 55.5 (23.5) 55.1 (22.1) 0.9 66 59.2 (23.43) 99 57.2 (21.5) 0.6 54 76.6 (23.1) 79 69.6 (24.0) −6.6 (−14.3 to 1.1)
 RP 18.3 (26.4) 28.4 (32.6) 0.002 67 10.8 (26.5) 98 22.2 (37.1) 0.03 54 59.3 (46.4) 79 56.3 (46.9) −8.1 (−24.4 to 8.2)
 RE 28.4 (40.0) 36.7 (43.4) 0.1 67 27.4 (40.2) 98 34.1 (43.8) 0.2 54 80.9 (38.6) 79 73.8 (42.9) −9.4 (−23.7 to 5.0)
 SF 22.8 (28.6) 27.5 (31.8) 0.2 67 38.4 (27.9) 98 45.7 (27.5) 0.1 54 73.6 (29.3) 79 70.3 (32.6) −5.0 (−15.7 to 5.8)
 MH 48.8 (22.9) 49.5 (22.4) 0.8 67 50.7 (24.5) 98 48.4 (23.4) 0.5 54 73.8 (23.4) 79 69.2 (27.1) −4.1 (−12.4 to 4.2)
 HT 30.9 (25.9) 31.1 (23.5) 0.9 67 27.6 (25.4) 98 34.2 (24.2) 0.1 54 75.5 (26.8) 79 70.6 (27.4) −4.9 (−14.5 to 4.7)
RMDQ (0–24)e 17.3 (4.8) 13.5 (5.8) <0.001 56 18.1 (4.4) 75 12.3 (5.4) <0.001 48 8.8 (7.5) 61 8.3 (6.8) 1.5 (−1.6 to 4.7)
ODI (0–100)e 50.1 (16.9) 42.2 (16.3) <0.001 56 47.8 (17.4) 75 42.8 (16.0) 0.1 48 28.1 (18.9) 60 27.4 (19.3) 0.1 (−7.1 to 7.3)
  1. aNs for outcome variables range from 170 to 221; bNs for outcome variables range from 112 to 135; c p-values from linear regression; dAdjusted for baseline score of outcome variable; eHigher scores indicate greater pain or disability; fHigher scores indicate better quality of life or function