MSD Classification or diagnosis|
mean & range if available
(mean & SD if available)
|Major results (association between biomarker & disease)||Conclusion|
|Neck disorders and symptoms|
Dibai Filho (2012) 
Cases: 8.33 (SD = 2.65) Controls: 2.27 (SD = 1.27)
|Unknown||Correlation NDI and skin temperature in right versus left trapezius; thermal asymmetry: NS.||No|
Elliott (2008) 
|Fat index indicating fatty infiltration (relative fat)||
Cases: 21.9 (SD = 7.5) Controls: 45.5 (SD = 15.9)
|Cases: 33.7 (20.6) mo Controls: 20.3 (9.6) mo||Within groups there was no association between NDI and fat levels; total upper fat, p = 0.15; total fat, p = 0.94. (No description of total vs upper fat in paper)||No|
Javanshir (2011) 
|Longus colli muscle CSA, APD, LD, and LD/APD||
33 (SD = 0.5)
VAS pain intensity
5.1 (SD = 0.8)
|≥ 3 moa||
NDI and CSA: rho = −0.45, p = 0.05, dominant side; rho = −0.48, p = 0.03, non-dominant side.|
NDI and APD: rho = −0.49, p = 0.03, dominant side; rho = −0.45, p = 0.05 non-dominant side.
NDI and LD or shape ratio, NS.
VAS and CSA, APD, LD or shape ratio, NS.
|Shoulder disorders and symptoms|
Rotator cuff tear (partial & full) or rotator cuff disease|
Keener (2015) 
|Rotator cuff tear enlargement (see paper for definition), shoulder pain||
ASES score - American Shoulder & Elbow|
Cases: 98.3 (IRQ = 10)
Controls: 100(IQR = 0)
Surgeons SST score - simple shoulder test (score normalized to 100)
Cases: 91.7 (IQR = 33)
Controls: 100(IQR = 0)
VAS pain intensityCases & controls: 1.0 (IQR = 0)
ASES: smaller w. advancing tear type, p < 0.05; median decreased by 31.9 points w. new pain, p < 0.05.|
SST: smaller w. advancing tear type, p < 0.05; median decreased by 14.8 points w. new pain, p < 0.05.
VAS: NS. w. advancing tear type; median increased by 3 points w. new pain, p < 0.05.
Shoulder impingement syndrome|
Park (2007) 
|Difference in mean skin temperature btwn shoulder sides||
VAS pain intensity|
|22.6 (SD = 40.4) mo||NS differences btwn normal, hypothermic, and hyperthermic cases for VAS (all cases in this analysis, hypothermic defined as abnormally low temperature in involved side vs uninvolved side, hyperthermic defined as opposite of hypothermic).||No|
|Neck/shoulder disorders and symptoms|
Nilsen (2007) 
|Finger skin blood flow||
VAS pain intensity: maximal pain response, shoulder pain response, neck pain response|
Maximal pain response:
Cases: 25 (SD = 20.0)
Controls: 15 (SD = 16.1)
Shoulder pain response:
Cases: 17 (SD = 16.9)
Controls: 10 (SD = 12.6)
Neck pain response:
Cases: 20 (SD = 20.3)
Controls: 9 (SD = 11.1)
|> 3 mo a||Maximal pain response: correlation w. finger skin blood flow response during first 10 min of the stressful task in cases, (rho = 0.52, p = 0.004), NS in controls (rho = 0.06, p = 0.71.||Yes|
Strøm (2009) 
Complaint severity score: neck pain, shoulder pain, musculoskeletal complaint severity index (MCI; mean of 7 pain items). 0 = no complaint; 12 = severe complaint. VAS during experiment: pain intensity and general tension|
Median (range) cases: neck pain 3 (1–12), shoulder pain 4 (0–12), MCI 2.5 (0.3–4.1) controls: neck pain 0 (0–6), shoulder pain 0 (0–6), MCI 0.5 (0–2.1) These scores are a composite measure of intensity x duration during the 4 weeks preceding the experiment.
|3 subjects (2 women) reported having had shoulder and neck pain for less than 12 months, 13 (7 women) for 1–years, three (all men) for 5–10 years, and five (all women) for more than 10 years.||
Cases: correlation between pain VAS and blood flow in active trapezius at end of work task (90 min): rho = 0.47, p = 0.03.|
No correlation at 15 or 45 min into work task, p > 0.05. Controls: no correlation at 15, 45, or 90 min into work task, p ≥ 0.05.
Cases: correlation between pain VAS and blood flow in contralateral trapezius at end of work task (90 min): rho = −0.53, p < 0.01.
No correlation at 15 or 45 min into work task, p > 0.05. Controls: similar direction of results, no rho or p-values supplied.
Takiguchi (2010) 
|Minimal & maximal standardized uptake values (SUV) of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F–FDG)||VAS||> 6 mo, with pain at least 1×/moa||
Trapezius: mean SUVs & pain VAS (SUVmax: r = −0.603, p < 0.0001; SUVmin: r = −0.405, p < 0.0001).|
Gluteus maximus: mean SUVs & pain VAS, NS.