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Table 1 Demographic factors, co-morbidity, disease markers, disease activity measures, damage and health status in an axial spondyloarthritis outpatient clinic

From: The relationship between demographic- and disease-related variables and health-related quality of life in patients with axial spondyloarthritis

  Total (n = 380)
All Women (n = 127) 33% Men (n = 253) 67% p
Demographic factors
 Age (years) 45.8 (12.0) 45.8 (12.4) 45.4 (11.8) 0.754
 Married/cohabiting 286 (75%) 94 (74%) 192 (76%) 0.642
 Employed 263 (73%) 81 (67%) 185 (74%) 0.088
 Education     0.736
 ≤ 10 years 42 (12%) 13 (10%) 30 (12%)  
 11–13 years 122 (32%) 39 (31%) 83 (33%)  
 > 13 years 213 (56%) 75 (59%) 138 (55%)  
 Exercise <1 h per week 54 (14%) 16 (13%) 38 (15%) 0.523
 Exercise 1–3 h per week 132 (35%) 47 (37%) 85 (34%)  
 Exercise >3 h per week 191 (51%) 63 (50%) 128 (51%)  
 Current smoker 105 (28%) 36 (28%) 69 (28%) 0.861
 Alcohol consumption (per week)     0.023
 Never 73 (19%) 33 (26%) 40 (16%)  
 1–6 glasses 263 (70%) 84 (67%) 179 (71%)  
 7 glasses or more 41 (11%) 9 (7%) 33 (13%)  
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.9 (4.6) 25.5 (4.7) 27.5 (4.5) <0.001
 Disease duration (years) 13.8 (11.4) 12.6 (11.2) 14.4 (11.5) 0.158
Disease marker
 HLA-B27 positive 331 (90%) 107 (87%) 224 (91%) 0.182
Disease activity measures
 CRP (mg/dl) 8.58 (11.94) 7.89 (13.25) 8.2 (11.24) 0.446
 BASDAI (0–10) 3.17 (2.11) 3.46 (2.06) 3.03 (2.12) 0.059
 MASES (0–13) 3.19 (3.75) 4.41 (3.85) 2.57 (3.54) <0.001
Health status
 Morning stiffness     0.663
 < 30 min 230 (60%) 76 (62%) 148 (59%)  
 > 31 min 151(40%) 47 (38%) 101 (41%)  
 BASFI (0–10) 2.71 (2.23) 2.77 (2.24) 2.68 (2.22) 0.740
 BAS-G (0–10) 3.88 (2.57) 4.03 (2.51) 3.81 (2.61) 0.447
 HAQ (0–3) 0.56 (0.49) 0.64 (0.53) 0.52 (0.47) 0.034
Damage score
 BASMI (0–10) 2.39 (2.41) 2.03 (1.60) 2.38 (2.19) 0.013
Current treatment
 NSAIDs 167 (44%) 59 (47%) 108 (43%) 0.485
 Synthetic DMARDs 19 (5%) 8 (6%) 11 (4%) 0.410
 Biological DMARDs 88 (23%) 23 (18%) 65 (25%) 0.098
 Prednisolone 17 (4%) 7 (5%) 10 (4%) 0.535
Co-morbidity
 Mean total score for co-morbidity (range 0–10) 0.7 (0.9) 0.7 (0.9) 0.6 (0.9) 0.542
  1. Continuous variables are presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD) and categorical variables as number and percentage (%). Bold p values indicate significant differences
  2. Key: BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, MASES Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BAS-G Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score, HAQ Health Assessment Questionnaire, BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metric Index, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, DMARDs disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs