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Table 1 Associations of risk factors at baseline with new onset of disabling low back pain

From: Assessment of potential risk factors for new onset disabling low back pain in Japanese workers: findings from the CUPID (cultural and psychosocial influences on disability) study

Risk factor an (%) bOR (95% CI) cOR (95% CI)
Age
 < 40 years 618 (65.2)     
 40–49 years 200 (21.1)     
 ≥ 50 years 130 (13.7)     
Female gender 302 (31.7)     
Past history of LBP 313 (33.8) 2.6 (1.5–4.6)*   
Finished full-time education before age 19 years 304 (31.9) 1.4 (0.8–2.6) 1.4 (0.7–2.7)
BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (obesity) 133 (14.2) 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.9 (0.4–2.1)
< 5 h sleep per day 82 (8.7) 1.8 (0.8–3.9) 1.5 (0.6–3.4)
Not married 445 (46.9) 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.4)
Heavy smoker 133 (13.9) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.6 (0.2–1.9)
Employed in current job for <1 year 96 (10.1) 1.2 (0.5–2.7) 1.3 (0.6–3.1)
Work ≥60 h per week 364 (38.8) 2.1 (1.1–4.0)* 2.0 (1.1–3.9)*
Lift weights ≥25 kg by hand 452 (47.3) 1.9 (1.1–3.3)* 1.9 (1.1–3.3)*
Aware of colleague(s) with LBP 687 (72.5) 1.2 (0.6–2.2) 1.1 (0.6–2.2)
Aware of family member(s) with LBP 301 (31.5) 1.2 (0.7–2.2) 1.1 (0.6–2.0)
Irregular work shifts 304 (31.9) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 1.1 (0.6–1.9)
Interpersonal stress at work 458 (48.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.2) 1.1 (0.6–1.9)
Inadequate breaks at work 507 (53.1) 1.8 (1.0–3.1) 1.6 (0.9–2.9)
Lack of job control 347 (36.4) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.8 (0.5–1.5)
Lack of support at work 72 (7.7) 2.0 (0.8–4.6) 1.9 (0.8–4.6)
Dissatisfied with job 378 (39.7) 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.3)
Low mood 265 (28.0) 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 1.0 (0.5–1.8)
Regular exercise < once per week 652 (69.3) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 0.9 (0.5–1.7)
Emotional trauma in childhood 66 (7.1) 2.0 (0.9–4.7) 1.7 (0.7–3.9)
Number distressing somatic symptoms
 0 760 (80.3) 1.0   1.0  
 1 132 (13.9) 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 1.4 (0.7–2.9)
  ≥ 2 55 (5.8) 0.3 (0.0–1.9) 0.3 (0.0–2.0)
Adverse beliefs about LBP
 Work relatedness 306 (32.3) 1.3 (0.8–2.3) 1.3 (0.8–2.3)
 Physical activity 208 (22.0) 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 1.1 (0.5–2.0)
 Prognosis 155 (16.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.9 (0.4–1.9)
  1. Totals may not sum to 100% due to rounding
  2. OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; LBP low back pain
  3. aData on individual risk factors were missing for up to 29 participants. Each logistic regression analysis was limited to participants with complete information on all of the risk factors included in the relevant model
  4. bOdds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) adjusted for age and gender
  5. cOdds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) adjusted for age, gender and past history of LBP
  6. *P < 0.05. A cut-point of P < 0.1 was adopted to select risk factors for inclusion in a subsequent multivariate model (see Table 2)