Skip to main content

Table 5 Studies assessing balance outcomes

From: Objective impairments of gait and balance in adults living with HIV-1 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

   Trenkwalder 1992 [46] Arendt 1994 [47] Beckley 1998 [50] Bauer 2005 [7] Dellepiane 2005 [48] Simmonds 2005 [49] Richert 2011 [8] Bauer 2011 [22] Sullivan 2011 [21] Cohen 2012 [45] Erlandson 2012a [10] Erlandson 2012b [18] Richert 2014 [9] Erlandson 2014 [12] Total studies assessing outcome
Balance outcome Mean sway path (m/min) X               1
Sway velocity (m/s)   X              1
Sway area (μVxs)   X    X           2a
AP      X           1
LAT      X           1
AP/LAT quotient   X    X           2b
Romberg ratio of sway velocity; RW   X    X           2a
Romberg area of sway; RA      X           1
Way      X           1
SOT sway strategy score         X        1
SOT EQ     X            1
SOT number of falls; time before fall     X            1
FBOS; LOS     X     X        2c
Latencies of postural reflexes (ms)   X X   X           3a
Duration of postural reflexes      X           1
Amplitude of postural reflexes      X           1
Area of single EMG potential      X           1
Normalized amplitude of ML-response    X             1
Standardized LL Z-scores    X             1
Romberg ECF (sec)           X      1
Tandem stance (sec)          X       1
Single leg stance time (sec)        X X X     X   4d
Berg balance score        X         1
TUG time (sec)        X       X   2e
5STS time (sec)        X X      X   3f
5STS pace (rises/s)               X 1
360° turn time         X        1
Walk heel-to-toe (number of steps)          X       1
Forward reach distance (cm)       X X         2g
  1. Abbreviations: 5STS 5-times sit-to-stand test, AP average velocity in an anterior-posterior direction, cm centimeters, ECF eyes-closed-on-foam, EMG electromyography, EQ equilibrium quotient, FBOS functional base of support, LAT average velocity in a medial-lateral direction, LL long loop, LOS limits of stability, m meters, min minute, ML medium loop, ms millisecond, RA Romberg area of sway, RW Romberg ratio of sway velocity, sec second, SOT sensory organization test, TUG timed-up-and-go test
  2. aMeta-analysis performed
  3. bMeta-analysis not done as Arendt 1994 does not report SD values
  4. cMeta-analysis not done as Bauer 2005 does not report values for control group
  5. dMeta-analysis not done due to heterogeneity in methodologies: Richert 2011 uses established normative values as comparison; Sullivan 2011 uses max time of 60 s, Richert 2014 has no comparison values
  6. eMeta-analysis not done as Richert 2014 has no comparison group
  7. fMeta-analysis not done as Richert 2011 & 2014 has no comparison groups
  8. gMeta-analysis not done as Richert 2011 uses established normative values as comparison