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Table 2 Sample characteristics, all participants

From: Objective impairments of gait and balance in adults living with HIV-1 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Study ID Country, setting Serostatus & sample size (N) Gender (%) Age (years) (SD) BMI (kg/m2) (SD) Edu-cation (years) (SD) Recreational drug use/Alcohol consumption/smoking (N) Depression/PN/Other co-morbidities
Trenkwalder 1992 [46] Germany, NR HIV+ 50 M 96
F 4
42.5 (9.3) NR NR 4 / NR / NR NR/Yes/Various neurological deficits
HIV- 50 NR 37.5 (11.0) NR NR NR / NR / NR NR / NR / Healthy
Arendt 1994 [47] Germany, NR HIV+ 46 M 74
F 26
ASX: 36.33 (9.18)
SX: 38.8 (8.38)
NR NR 0 / 0 / NR NR / No / HIV type-1-related encephalopathy (n = 10)
HIV- 38 M 53
F 47
37.7 (10.21) NR NR NR / NR / NR NR / NR / Healthy
Beckley 1998 [50] USA, NR HIV+ 9 M 89
F 11
38.9 (10.7) NR NR 0 / 0 / NR NR / No / PGL (n = 2); Opportunistic infection (n = 3)
HIV- 10a M 50
F 50
34.3 (7.8) NR NR NR / NR / NR NR / No / Healthy
Bauer 2005 [7] USA, outpatient infectious disease clinics HIV+ 90 M 39
F 61
NRx: 40 (7.2)
NNRTI: 40 (5.9)
PI: 39 (6.4)
NR NRx:
11.5 (1.6);
NNRTI:
11.6 (1.7);
PI:
12.1 (2.6)
Large % Hx of drug abuse/NRx: 39.3%; NNRTI: 40%; PI: 35.1%/NR NRx: 42.9%, NNRTI: 28%, PI: 35.1%/NR/Exclusion criteria eliminated major psychiatric-, medical- & neurological disorders
HIV- 78 M 47.4
F 52.6
38 (7.1) NR 12.6 (2.2) Large % Hx of drug abuse/16.7%/NR 17.9% / NR / Healthy
Simmonds 2005 [49] USA, out- patient AIDS facility HIV+ 100 M 78
F 22
40.70 (7.49) NR NR NR / NR / NR NR / No / Exclusion criteria eliminated major medical & neurological disorders
HIV- 105a M 37
F 63
44.9 (14.7) NR NR NR / NR / NR NR / No / Healthy
Dellepiane 2005 [48] Italy, NR HIV+ 30 M 40
F 60
ASX: 28 (NR)
AIDS: 32.8 (NR)
NR NR NR / NR / NR NR / NR / Alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 1); no neurological or oto-neurological symptoms
HIV- 55 M 64
F 36
35 (NR) NR NR NR / NR / NR NR / NR / Healthy
Scott 2005 [35] USA, HIV clinic HIV+ 27 M 100 48.7 (6.5) 24.2 (4.1) NR NR / NR / NR NR / NR / Exclusion criteria eliminated major medical & neurological disorders
Richert 2011 [8] France, HIV clinics HIV+ 324 M 80
F 20
b47.6 (41.8, 53.9) b22.5 (20.6, 24.6) NR NR / NR / NR NR / 14% / Hepatitis B: 7%, Hepatitis C: 19%
Bauer 2011 [22] USA, outpatient infectious disease clinics HIV+ 121 M 58
F 42
BMI < 21: 39.4 (1.0); BMI 21–29: 40.9 (0.8);
BMI > 29: 37.6 (1.2)
<21(n = 35);
21–29 (n = 61); >29(n = 25)
NR No differences between groups/No differences between groups/NR Significant differences (P < 0.05)/NR/Exclusion criteria eliminated major psychiatric-, medical- & neurological disorders
HIV- 86 M 49
F 51
BMI < 21: 38.5 (1.3);
BMI 21–29: 38.0 (1.1); BMI > 29: 36.6 (1.0)
<21(n = 2); 21–29 (n = 30);
>29 (n = 35)
NR No differences between groups/No differences between groups/NR Significant differences (P < 0.05)/NR/Healthy
Sullivan 2011 [21] USA, HIV clinics, local community HIV+ 40 M 70
F 30
41 (NR) M 25.4 (3.34);
F 26 (3.16)
M 14.1 (3.05);
F 13.8 (2.67)
NR / No differences between groups/M 43%, F 20% BDI: M 10.5 (8.33); F 12.8 (9.26)/M 26%, F 17%/NR
HIV- 83 M 48
F 52
44 (NR) M 26.9 (4.83);
F 24.7 (4.49)
M 15.9 (2.27);
F 15.3 (2.00)
NR / No differences between groups/M 10%, F 0% BDI: M 2.08 (2.33), F 2.9 (3.08)/NR/Without medical or psychiatric conditions
Erlandson 2012a [10] USA, Infectious Diseases Group Practice clinic HIV+ 359 M 85
F 15
b50.8 (47.7, 55.7) NR NR IDU (<1%), Cocaine (<1%), Marijuana (23%) / >7 drinks/wk. (4%) / Current: 34% NR /NR/NR
Erlandson 2012b [18] USA, Infectious Diseases Group Practice clinic HIV+ 359 M 85
F 15
52 (0.3) NR NR Current IDU (<1%) / >7 drinks/wk.: Non-fallers (4%), Single fallers (7%), Re-fallers (2%) / Non-fallers (30%), Single-fallers (42%), Re-fallers (47%) NR/NR/30% reported ≥1 falls during the past year (of those, 61% were recurrent fallers)
Cohen 2012 [45] USA, multiple clinical subsites HIV+ 247 M 51
F 49
48.9 (8.9) NR NR NR/No/NR NR/NR/Exclusion criteria eliminated spinal injury, vestibular impairment, use of narcotics, antihistamines or sedatives within 48 h of testing
HIV- 200 M 84
F 16
54.2 (11.2) NR NR NR/No/NR NR/NR/NR
Beans 2013 [43] USA, Baltimore VA Medical Center HIV+ 45 M 100 54.4 (6.3) <25 (51.1%)
≥25 (48.9%)
NR NR/NR/69.0% NR/NR/Diabetes 26.7%, Hepatitis C 71.1%, Hypertension 68.9%, Chronic Pulmonary Disease 20%, Dyslipidemia 36.4%, Anemia 24.4%
HIV- 27 M 100 54.7 (6.2) <25 (32.4%)
≥25 (67.6%)
NR NR/NR/56.8% NR/NR/Diabetes 18.9%, Hepatitis C 55.6%, Hypertension 73%, Chronic Pulmonary Disease 29.7%, Dyslipidemia 25.8%, Anemia 37.8%
Mbada 2013 [44] Nigeria, Virology Research Clinic HIV+ 37 M 40.5
F 59.5
35.68 (7.71) 22.77 (4.17) NR NR/NR/NR NR/NR/NR
HIV- 37 M 40.5
F 59.5
35.73 (7.88) 24.31 (4.24) NR NR/NR/NR NR/NR/Healthy
Richert 2014 [9] France, HIV clinics HIV+ 178 M 81
F 19
b48 (43, 56) b22.2 (20.5, 24.5) NR Prior IDU (14%)/NR/NR NR/NR/Cerebral CDC stage C condition: 3%, Hepatitis B: 7%, Hepatitis C: 20%
Erlandson 2014 [12] USA, Infectious Diseases clinic HIV+ 359 M 85
F 15
52 (5.2) 26.4 (6.0) NR Current IDU (<1%) /NR/NR NR/NR/NR
  1. Abbreviations: AIDS Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome, ART antiretroviral therapy, ASX asymptomatic, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, BMI Body Mass Index, CDC Centre for Disease Control, DAST-10 Drug Abuse Screening Test, F female, HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, Hx history, IDU intravenous drug use, M male, MAST Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, MDD Major Depressive Disorder, N number of participants, NA not applicable, NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, NR not reported, NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, NRx no treatment, PGL Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, PI protease inhibitor, PN peripheral neuropathy, SD Standard Deviation, SX symptomatic, USA United States of America, WR Walter Reed stages
  2. aRetrospective control group of healthy volunteers from previous study
  3. bMedian (IQR)