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Table 1 Static percentages of the performed body postures ≥4 s during treatment

From: Constrained posture in dentistry – a kinematic analysis of dentists

Evaluation parameter [°] Activity Duration [min] Stasis 4–10s [%] Stasis 10–30s [%] Stasis 30–60s [%] Stasis ≥60s [%] Total percentage of stasis [%] Percentage of non-neutral postures [%] Total percentage of stasis of non-neutral postures [%]
Head tilted to the front (HT_f) Impression 40.48 5.8 1.5 ---- ---- 7.3 48.2 14.5
Extracting a tooth 63.83 7.3 2.8 ---- ---- 10.1 85.3 11.6
Handicraft activities 1546.47 12.7 6 0.5 ---- 19.2 67.9 27.4
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 11.5 10.7 6.2 ---- 28.4 66.5 36.1
Breaks during treatment 51.15 3.5 ---- ---- ---- 3.5 35.5 5.9
X-ray 26.27 1.3 ---- ---- ---- 1.3 40.6 2.4
Pain diagnostic 23.73 11.9 ---- ---- ---- 11.9 65.9 16.6
Syringe 89.55 17 26.1 5.3 ---- 48.5 78 58.4
Screening 249.07 11 1.8 0.2 ---- 13 67.1 16.5
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 22.7 14.5 1.1 0.2 38.5 79.9 46
Head tilted to the right (HT_r) Impression 40.48 1.9 ---- ---- ---- 1.9 26.5 4.4
Extracting a tooth 63.83 4.5 0.7 ---- ---- 5.2 75.7 6.9
Handicraft activities 1546.47 8.1 3.3 ---- ---- 11.5 50.4 20.8
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 13.6 10.2 7.1 ---- 30.9 60.9 39.8
Breaks during treatment 51.15 1.8 1.6 ---- ---- 3.4 22 7.6
X-ray 26.27 2.3   ---- ---- 2.3 34.7 7.1
Pain diagnostic 23.73 8.6 1.5 ---- ---- 10.1 58.2 16.9
Syringe 89.55 14.2 23.9 4.7 ---- 42.7 69.6 56.2
Screening 249.07 7.2 0.7 ---- ---- 7.9 56.7 12.8
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 16.7 8.1 0.3 ---- 25.2 62.7 35.5
Neck curvature to the front (NC_f) Impression 40.48 3.8 0.5 ---- ---- 4.3 27.9 10.7
Extracting a tooth 63.83 6.2 2.5 ---- ---- 8.6 46.5 16.6
Handicraft activities 1546.47 8.6 4.1 0.2 ---- 12.9 42.8 23.6
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 0.9 ---- ---- ---- 0.9 25.5 4.7
Breaks during treatment 51.15 5.9 3.1 ---- ---- 9 41.3 11.9
X-ray 26.27 1.2 2.2 ---- ---- 3.4 36.7 5.1
Pain diagnostic 23.73 10.8 1.2 ---- ---- 12 45.6 19.9
Syringe 89.55 8.4 12.8 2.6 ---- 23.8 40.8 33
Screening 249.07 8.1 2.6 0.2 ---- 10.9 43.1 17.7
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 12.5 10 0.9 ---- 23.3 44.8 36.1
Neck curvature to the right (NC_r) Impression 40.48 2.6 ---- ---- ---- 2.6 24.5 8.2
Extracting a tooth 63.83 4.4 1.8 ---- ---- 6.2 61.6 8.4
Handicraft activities 1546.47 6.6 2.8 ---- ---- 9.4 42.4 17.9
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 7 4.8 7.1 ---- 18.8 49.9 32.4
Breaks during treatment 51.15 2.9 1.6 ---- ---- 4.5 26 13.8
X-ray 26.27 2.7 ---- ---- ---- 2.7 38.1 7.3
Pain diagnostic 23.73 7.5 0.7   ---- 8.2 43.5 16.7
Syringe 89.55 10.1 14.9 2.8 ---- 27.8 47.5 37.2
Screening 249.07 6.9 0.8 ---- ---- 7.8 44 12.9
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 13.9 7.4 0.6 0.2 22 52.5 32.3
TS inclination to the front (TSI_f) Impression 40.48 4.9 1.1 ---- ---- 6 15.9 24.4
Extracting a tooth 63.83 16.5 16.2 2.8 ---- 35.5 72.9 46.9
Handicraft activities 1546.47 11.1 10.3 1.3 0.2 22.9 39.6 44
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 7.6 8.9 14.6 ---- 31 42.1 56.8
Breaks during treatment 51.15 4 4.6 ---- ---- 8.6 16.2 21.4
X-ray 26.27 7.9 2 ---- ---- 9.9 36.7 23.3
Paindiagnostic 23.73 13.9 10.1 ---- ---- 24 42.7 37.1
Syringe 89.55 6.2 24.7 10.7 1.2 42.9 52.3 53.8
Screening 249.07 13.8 8.1 0.5   22.4 40.4 37.9
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 15.2 22.4 6.4 0.4 44.3 60.4 61.7
TS inclination to the right (TSI_r) Impression 40.48 3.7 0.6 ---- ---- 4.3 12.6 10.1
Extracting a tooth 63.83 5.4 6.3 0.9 ---- 12.6 22.5 35.5
Handicraft activities 1546.47 3.6 3.7 0.9 0.2 8.2 16.1 25.3
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 13.7 20.4 14.9 ---- 49 68.1 53.2
Breaks during treatment 51.15 2.1 1.4 ---- ---- 3.5 11.6 10.5
X-ray 26.27 2.6 3.3 ---- ---- 5.8 22.6 14
Pain diagnostic 23.73 2.3 5.2 2.6 ---- 10 19.2 20.3
Syringe 89.55 2.1 15.1 9.7 1.7 28.7 33.9 38.2
Screening 249.07 10 6.5 0.5 ---- 17 32 28.9
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 4.5 9 2.2 0.4 16.2 23.1 29.8
Impression 40.48 3.8 0.5 ---- 3.8 4.3 27.9 10.7
LS inclination to the front (LSI_f) Extracting a tooth 63.83 6.2 2.5 ---- 6.2 8.6 46.5 16.6
Handicraft activities 1546.47 8.6 4.1 0.2 8.6 12.9 42.8 23.6
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 0.9 ---- ---- 0.9 0.9 25.5 4.7
Breaks during treatment 51.15 5.9 3.1 ---- 5.9 9 41.3 11.9
X-ray 26.27 1.2 2.2 ---- 1.2 3.4 36.7 5.1
Pain diagnostic 23.73 10.8 1.2 ---- 10.8 12 45.6 19.9
Syringe 89.55 8.4 12.8 2.6 8.4 23.8 40.8 33
Screening 249.07 8.1 2.6 0.2 8.1 10.9 43.1 17.7
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 12.5 10 0.9 12.5 23.3 44.8 36.1
Back curvature to the front (BC_f) Impression 40.48 2.7 0.6 ---- ---- 3.2 6 8.3
Extracting a tooth 63.83 8.1 13.7 2 ---- 23.8 34.9 43.3
Handicraft activities 1546.47 1.8 2.1 0.3 0.2 4.3 6.6 14.1
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 1.8 ---- ---- ---- 1.8 2.2 1.9
Breaks during treatment 51.15 1 0.8 ---- ---- 1.8 2.7 14.6
X-ray 26.27 7.1 2.3 ---- ---- 9.4 19.4 30.8
Pain diagnostic 23.73 4.1 4.4 ---- ---- 8.5 9.7 12.8
Syringe 89.55 1.3 6.6 6.9 1.1 16 18.1 20.3
Screening 249.07 1.6 1.7 0.2 ---- 3.6 5.3 8.1
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 1.8 4.7 1.1 0.3 7.9 9.5 16
Back curvature to the right (BC_r) Impression 40.48 2 2 0.7 ---- 2.7 7.9 10.3
Extracting a tooth 63.83 3 3 2.3 0.8 6.1 10.5 26
Handicraft activities 1546.47 2 2 2.4 0.4 5 9.2 21.4
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 5.6 5.6 19.9 7.4 32.9 40.1 57.3
Breaks during treatment 51.15 1.3 1.3 ---- 1.1 2.4 5.7 4.9
X-ray 26.27 1.9 1.9 1.5 ---- 3.4 15.2 8.8
Pain diagnostic 23.73 0.9 0.9 1.6 ---- 2.5 6.8 7.3
Syringe 89.55 0.9 0.9 6.4 5.1 16.1 20 21.6
Screening 249.07 6.3 6.3 6.5 0.2 13.1 20.2 28.2
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 2.2 2.2 5.5 1.4 9.5 13.1 21.4
Back torsion to the right (BT_r) Impression 40.48 7 5.8 1.3 ---- 14.2 25 30.5
Extracting a tooth 63.83 8.3 8.5 1.9 ---- 18.6 32.9 34.5
Handicraft activities 1546.47 7.2 9.2 2.6 0.5 19.4 32.6 36.3
Conservatory dentistry 8.89 3.6 ---- ---- ---- 3.6 12.4 4.9
Breaks during treatment 51.15 4 11.1 4.3 2.4 21.8 35.3 26.7
X-ray 26.27 8.3 5.5 2.7 ---- 16.6 45.3 22.8
Pain diagnostic 23.73 3.6 11.6 ---- ---- 15.3 25.6 27.8
Syringe 89.55 2 12.8 9 2.6 26.4 34.4 34.4
Screening 249.07 8.2 14.3 2.6 2.8 27.9 40.8 42.9
Contra-angle/ultrasonic handpiece 685.52 5.1 15.5 7.7 2.3 30.7 39.7 42.1
  1. Results to be emphasized are marked in bold. Key: Total percentage of statics = sum of all static postures in the moderate and unfavorable ergonomic range during all activities