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Table 2 Pre- and post-training values1 of all included pilots along with the subset of pilots performing per protocol

From: Impact of exercise programs among helicopter pilots with transient LBP

  All included pilots n = 39 Pilots with ≥19 training sessions, per protocol n = 20
PRE POST    PRE POST   
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean diff (95% CI) p-value Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean diff (95% CI) p-value
VAS (0–10) 3.5 (2.0) 2.3 (1.6) ÷1.2 (÷2.0 to ÷0.4) .005 3.5 (2.2) 2.3 (1.5) ÷1.3 (÷2.6 to 0.1) .069
ODI % 10.5 (6.2) 7.1 (6.0) ÷3.3 (÷5.0 to ÷1.6) .000 10.1 (5.6) 7.7 (5.2) ÷2.4 (÷4.2 ÷0.6) .010
EQ-5D (0–100) 82.3 (13.1) 89.6 (12.4) 7.4 (2.9 to 11.9) .002 77.7 (13.1) 90.2 (12.8) 12.5 (5.9 to 19.1) .001
Muscular endurance in seconds
 Extension 54 (28) 56 (29) 2.7 (÷8.4 to 13.9) .622 57 (28) 63 (36) 6.3 (÷13.8 to 26.4) .523
 Flexion 65 (37) 111 (54) 45.8 (29.0 to 62.6) .000 62 (40) 109 (56) 47.4 (18.6 to 76.2) .003
 RSB2 34 (16) 52 (20) 17.9 (12.1 to 23.7) .000 35 (18) 52 (20) 17.7 (9.7 to 25.6) .000
 LSB3 40 (20) 63 (29) 23.2 (15.7 to 30.7) .000 45 (22) 73 (33) 28.3 (18.0 to 38.6) .000
 Total holding time 193 (70) 283 (98) 89.6 (59.5 to 119.8) .000 198 (75) 298 (111) 99.6 (46.8 to 152.5) .001
Ultrasound in percent4
 Level L4-L5 9.0 (6.1) 11.6 (5.9) 2.6 (1.1 to 4.1) .002 8.0 (4.5) 10.4 (5.2) 2.4 (1.1 to 3.6) .001
 Level L5-S1 6.1 (4.6) 7.7 (4.8) 1.5 (0.4 to 2.7) .011 4.7 (3.7) 6.5 (4.3) 1.8 (0.5 to 3.1) .010
 Right side L4–5 & L5-S1 6.8 (5.6) 9.4 (5.0) 2.7 (1.2 to 4.2) .001 5.5 (4.3) 8.7 (5.0) 3.2 (2.1 to 4.2) .000
 Left side L4–5 & L5-S1 8.4 (5.7) 9.8 (6.3) 1.4 (0.0 to 2.8) .044 7.2 (4.4) 8.1 (4.7) 1.0 (÷0.7 to 2.6) .231
 Both levels and sides 7.6 (5.1) 9.6 (5.2) 2.1 (0.8 to 3.3) .002 6.3 (3.9) 8.4 (4.9) 2.1 (1.1 to 3.1) .000
  1. 1Irrespective of training program. Mean values with standard Deviation and Mean difference with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) and p-value form paired t-tests. 2RSB = Right Side Bridge. 3LSB = Left Side Bridge 4Values given in %-change from relaxed to contracted muscle