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Table 2 Correlations between serum inflammatory cytokines and pain scores, n = 96 (Spearman’s correlation coefficients, p)

From: Correlations between inflammatory cytokines, muscle damage markers and acute postoperative pain following primary total knee arthroplasty

  PDQ NRSR NRSW
T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T0 T1 T2 T3 T4
ESR 0.31, 0.002* 0.44, <0.001* 0.04, 0.691 −0.13, 0.203 −0.04, 0.718 −0.10, 0.339 0.53, <0.001* 0.13, 0.192 0.15, 0.142 0.04, 0.670 0.04, 0.672
CRP 0.37, <0.001* 0.24, 0.017 0.04, 0.689 −0.08, 0.446 0.00, 0.982 −0.02, 0.814 0.34, 0.001* 0.38, <0.001* 0.29, 0.004 0.15, 0.134 −0.03, 0.743
PGE2 0.44, <0.001* 0.24, 0.017 0.37, <0.001* 0.29†, 0.005 0.06, 0.584 −0.02, 0.824 0.67, <0.001* 0.35, 0.001* 0.42, <0.001* 0.39, <0.001* 0.29, 0.004
IL-6 0.26, 0.009 0.34, 0.001* 0.31, 0.002* 0.28, 0.007 −0.07, 0.474 −0.20, 0.047 0.33, 0.001* 0.41, <0.001* 0.40, <0.001* 0.37, <0.001* 0.22, 0.034
IL-8 -0.05, 0.641 −0.10, 0.314 −0.13, 0.224 −0.07, 0.520 −0.20, 0.055 −0.04, 0.709 −0.03, 0.782 −0.17, 0.107 −0.24, 0.020 0.21, 0.041 −0.07, 0.937
TNF-α 0.09, 0.404 0.16, 0.110 −0.01, 0.907 −0.14, 0.186 −0.11, 0.302 −0.06, 0.583 0.18, 0.080 0.05, 0.619 0.06, 0.576 −0.01, 0.944 −0.04, 0.737
  1. Abbreviations: NRSR numerical rating scale at rest, NRSW numerical rating scale at walking, PDQ pain disability questionnaire, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP C-reactive protein, PGE2 prostaglandin E2, IL interleukin, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha, T0 24 h before surgery, T1-T4 1, 2, 3 and 5 days after surgery, respectively. The p-values are presented in their raw, uncorrected form, but the statistical significance for multiple comparisons were further corrected using the conservative Bonferroni p value (0.05/15 = 0.003) to control the family-wise error rate, and p < 0.003 are deemed significant (*).