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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, knee alignment, and three-dimensional foot posture of the study patients (n = 88 patients, 88 knees)

From: Association of frontal plane knee alignment with foot posture in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis

Person-level characteristics
 Age, years 74.8 ± 7.58
 Female, no. (%) 58 (65.9)
 Height, m 1.56 ± 7.89
 Weight, kg 59.2 ± 10.5
 Body mass index, kg/m2 24.3 ± 3.54
Knee-level characteristics
 Corrected AAA, degree 176.6 ± 4.77
 Tibiofemoral joint alignment, no. (%)
  Neutral (corrected AAA ≥179 degrees but <182 degrees) 20 (22.7)
  Valgus (corrected AAA ≥182 degrees) 5 (5.7)
  Varus (corrected AAA <179 degrees) 63 (71.6)
 Tibiofemoral joint K/L grade, no. (%)
  Grade 1 30 (34.1)
  Grade 2 35 (39.8)
  Grade 3 14 (15.9)
  Grade 4 9 (10.2)
 Hallux valgus angle, degree 13.6 ± 7.22
  Presence of hallux valgus, no. (%)a 11 (12.5)
 Navicular height, mm 30.1 ± 6.75
 Navicular height/foot length, %b 12.7 ± 2.75
 Calcaneus angle relative to floor, degreec 1.35 ± 5.09
 Rear foot angle, degreed 6.01 ± 3.76
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation unless indicated otherwise. AAA = anatomical axis angle; K/L = Kellgren/Lawrence
  2. aPresence of hallux valgus is defined as the hallux valgus angle ≥20°
  3. bNavicular height/foot length is calculated by the navicular height divided by the foot length
  4. cA positive value indicates pronation direction of the calcaneus
  5. dA positive value indicates valgus direction of the rearfoot