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Table 2 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for fractures among the female participants in Cox regression analyses

From: Increased fragility fracture risk in Korean women who snore: a 10-year population-based prospective cohort study

  Fracture Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
No (n = 2947) Yes (n = 273) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI)
Survival time (years) 9.8 ± 0.6 6.6 ± 2.4       
Snoring, n (%)         
 Non-snoring 1295 (43.9) 103 (37.7) Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Snoring 1369 (46.5) 124 (45.4) 0.320 1.142 (0.879–1.483) 0.495 1.097 (0.841–1.432) 0.506 1.094 (0.840–1.424)
 Severe snoring 283 (9.6) 46 (16.9) <0.001* 1.969 (1.391–2.787) 0.006* 1.682 (1.164–2.430) 0.005* 1.680 (1.168–2.416)
Age (years) 52.2 ± 8.8 54.0 ± 8.5    0.178 1.019 (0.991–1.048) 0.007* 1.023 (1.006–1.039)
Weight (kg) 58.9 ± 8.2 59.1 ± 8.3    0.956 0.999 (0.964–1.035)   
Height (cm) 154.0 ± 5.5 153.1 ± 5.5    0.014* 0.966 (0.939–0.993) 0.004* 0.965 (0.941–0.988)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 3.2 25.2 ± 3.2       
Waist circumference (cm) 81.6 ± 9.6 82.1 ± 9.5    0.039* 0.978 (0.957–0.999) 0.006* 0.977 (0.960–0.993)
Hip circumference (cm) 93.4 ± 5.9 94.2 ± 5.7    0.014* 1.047 (1.009–1.086) <0.001* 1.048 (1.022–1.076)
Regular exercise, n (%) 693 (23.5) 67 (24.5)    0.776 1.043 (0.780–1.394)   
Alcohol consumption, n (%)         
 Never 2088 (70.9) 197 (72.2)    Reference   
 Former 74 (2.5) 10 (3.7)    0.375 1.336 (0.704–2.536)   
 Current 785 (26.6) 66 (24.2)    0.615 0.929 (0.697–1.238)   
Lifetime smoker, n (%)         
 Never 2832 (96.1) 260 (95.2)    Reference   
 Former 61 (2.1) 6 (2.2)    0.995 0.998 (0.441–2.256)   
 Current 54 (1.8) 7 (2.6)    0.423 1.365 (0.638–2.921)   
History of previous fracture, n (%) 80 (2.7) 8 (2.9)    0.803 0.913 (0.448–1.862)   
Family history of osteoporosis or fracture, n (%) 154 (5.2) 21 (7.7)    0.029* 1.658 (1.052–2.612) 0.028* 1.658 (1.055–2.605)
Degenerative arthritis, n (%) 504 (17.1) 56 (20.5)    0.764 0.953 (0.694–1.308)   
Rheumatoid arthritis, n (%) 219 (7.4) 34 (12.5)    0.020* 1.563 (1.073–2.278) 0.019* 1.552 (1.076–2.238)
Hypertension, n (%) 499 (16.9) 51 (18.7)    0.847 0.968 (0.698–1.342)   
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 165 (5.6) 16 (5.9)    0.860 0.955 (0.569–1.601)   
Medications for osteoporosis, n (%) 141 (4.8) 25 (9.2)    0.004* 1.877 (1.225–2.876) 0.004* 1.856 (1.221–2.819)
Years since menopause (years) 7.0 ± 8.6 8.4 ± 8.7    0.821 0.997 (0.973–1.022)   
Estrogen therapy, n (%) 104 (3.5) 11 (4.0)    0.771 0.912 (0.492–1.690)   
Speed of sound in radius (m/s) 4195.9 ± 187.3 4162.4 ± 184.5    0.318 1.000 (0.999–1.000)   
Speed of sound in tibia (m/s) 3859.1 ± 164.6 3832.1 ± 160.9    0.627 1.000 (0.999–1.001)   
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number of participants (%)
  2. Crude univariate Cox regression model 1 did not control for any covariate
  3. Cox regression model 2 controlled for age, weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, regular exercise, alcohol consumption, lifetime smoker, history of fracture, family history of osteoporosis or fracture, degenerative arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, years since menopause, estrogen therapy, and quantitative ultrasound measurements at the radius and tibia
  4. Cox regression model 3 with backward stepwise elimination involved a threshold of p = 0.1
  5. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  6. *p < 0.05