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Table 3 Associations of x-ray features of lumbar disc degeneration and spondylolisthesis with severity of disability and intensity of pain – multivariable generalised linear models with linear response

From: Associations between disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and disability in chronic mechanical low back pain: a cross sectional study

  Severity of disability Intensity of pain
Variables β coefficient (95% confidence itervals) p value β coefficient (95% confidence intervals) p value
Regression model 1
Intercept 22.945 (14.589 – 31.301) <0.001* 47.375 (34.766 – 59.984) <0.001*
Severity of disc space narrowing
 Grade 0 0.000   0.000  
 Grade 1 -0.311 (-3.301 – 2.679) 0.839 3.896 (-0.616 – 8.408) 0.091
 Grade 2 2.751 (-0.934 – 6.437) 0.143 2.007 (-3.555 – 7.569) 0.479
Age (years) -0.014 (-0.133 – 0.106) 0.824 -0.173 (-0.352 – 0.007) 0.060
Gender
 Male 0.000   0.000  
 Female 7.369 (4.446 – 10.293) <0.001* 4.899 (0.488 – 9.311) 0.030*
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.042 (-0.236 – 0.320) 0.765 -0.049 (-0.468 – 0.370) 0.819
Pain radiating into legs
 No 0.000   0.000  
 Yes 6.989 (4.174 – 9.803) <0.001* 12.262 (8.015 – 16.508) <0.001*
Regression model 2
Intercept 22.049 (13.736 – 30.362) <0.001* 49.630 (37.099 – 62.161) <0.001*
Severity of anterior osteophyte
 Grade 0 0.000   0.000  
 Grade 1 2.136 (-0.565 – 4.838) 0.121 4.836 (0.764 – 8.908) 0.020*
 Grade 2 -2.309 (-7.727 – 3.108) 0.403 2.931 (-5.235 – 11.097) 0.482
Age 0.001 (-0.118 – 0.120) 0.989 -0.200 (-0.379 – -0.021) 0.029*
Gender
 Male 0.000   0.000  
 Female 7.374 (4.448 – 10.301) <0.001* 5.507 (1.096 – 9.918) 0.014*
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.037 (-0.241 – 0.315) 0.794 -0.130 (-0.550 – 0.289) 0.543
Pain radiating into legs
 No 0.000   0.000  
 Yes 6.889 (4.076 – 9.702) <0.001* 12.045 (7.805 – 16.285) <0.001*
Regression model 3
Intercept 22.710 (14.255 – 31.164) <0.001* 49.254 (36.523 – 61.985) <0.001*
Severity of lumbar disc degeneration
 Grade 0 0.000   0.000  
 Grade 1 0.976 (-1.885 – 3.838) 0.252 3.642 (-0.688 – 7.951) 0.098
 Grade 2 2.243 (-1.599 – 6.086) 0.504 4.559 (-1.227 – 10.345) 0.122
Age -0.020 (-0.144 – 0.105) 0.758 -0.207 (-0.394 - -0.020) 0.030*
Gender
 Male 0.000   0.000  
 Female 7.320 (4.391 – 10.249) <0.001* 5.240 (0.829 – 9.651) 0.020*
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.045 (-0.234 – 0.324) 0.753 -0.111 (-0.531 – 0.310) 0.606
Pain radiating into legs
 No 0.000   0.000  
 Yes 7.009 (4.191 – 9.828) <0.001* 12.167 (7.923 – 16.412) <0.001*
Regression model 4
Intercept 23.304 (15.086 – 31.523) <0.001* 48.248 (35.749 – 60.748) <0.001*
Presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis
 No 0.000   0.000  
 Yes 5.670 (1.684 – 9.656) 0.005* 3.549 (-2.514 – 9.612) 0.251
Age -0.040 (-0.156 – 0.076) 0.501 -0.168 (-0.345 – 0.009) 0.063
Gender
 Male 0.000   0.000  
 Female 7.011 (4.114 – 9.908) <0.001* 4.824 (0.418 – 9.231) 0.032*
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.078 (-0.197 – 0.353) 0.578 -0.055 (-0.473 – 0.363) 0.795
Pain radiating into legs
 No 0.000   0.000  
 Yes 6.820 (4.019 – 9.621) <0.001* 12.128 (7.868 – 16.388) <0.001*
  1. Main predictor (independent) variables were analysed as follows:
  2. Regression model 1: severity of disc space narrowing (grade 0, 1 and 2)
  3. Regression model 2: severity of anterior osteophytes (grade 0, 1 and 2)
  4. Regression model 3: severity of lumbar disc degeneration (grade 0, 1 and 2)
  5. Regression model 4: presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis (yes/no)
  6. * - p value < 0.05