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Table 2 Characteristics of non-responders and responders in the rocker-sole footwear group (n = 41)

From: Predictors of response to prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in individuals with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis

  Non-responders (n = 25) Responders (n = 16)
Demographics/anthropometrics
 Age, years–mean (SD) 56.9 (8.4) 55.9 (12.4)
 Females–n (%) 14 (56) 11 (69)
 Body mass index, kg/m2–mean (SD) 28.4 (4.1) 28.3 (4.9)
General health/physical activity
 SF 12 physical component score–mean (SD) a 45.8 (10.2) 45.4 (9.8)
 SF 12 mental component score–mean (SD) a 52.2 (8.1) 51.7 (10.8)
 Physical activity, total hours per week–mean (SD) 14.5 (11.0) 16.8 (10.1)
Pain characteristics
 Pain duration, months–median (IQR) 36 (108) 24 (75)
 Pain severity at rest–mean (SD) b 3.4 (2.7) 3.5 (2.3)
 Pain severity while walking–mean (SD) b 4.7 (2.2) 5.1 (2.1)
 Stiffness in the morning–mean (SD) b 3.9 (2.9) 4.1 (1.6)
 Stiffness later in the day–mean (SD) b 3.7 (2.8) 3.7 (2.2)
 FHSQ pain–mean (SD) a 52.6 (19.7) 45.9 (17.9)
 FHSQ function–mean (SD) a 70.8 (23.4) 62.5 (28.0)
 FFI pain–mean (SD) a 41.1 (16.6) 47.1 (18.3)
 FFI difficulty–mean (SD) a 37.2 (25.3) 45.9 (23.3)
 FFI stiffness–mean (SD) a 31.8 (22.9) 44.4 (16.7)*
 Pain Catastrophising Scale–mean (SD) b 9.2 (6.9) 10.6 (7.9)
Foot posture and range of motion
 Foot posture index–mean (SD) 3.5 (2.0) 3.6 (2.2)
 1st MTPJ range of motion (°)–mean (SD) 41.4 (13.4) 38.5 (13.8)
Radiographic severity
 None–n (%) 1 (4) 3 (20)
 Mild–n (%) 3 (13) 2 (13)
 Moderate–n (%) 16 (70) 2 (13)
 Severe–n (%) 3 (13) 8 (53)*
Biomechanical effects of intervention
 1st MTPJ peak pressure: own shoes, kPa–mean (SD) 167.5 (62.5) 158.3 (40.6)
 1st MTPJ peak pressure: intervention, kPa–mean (SD) 133.2 (49.1) 137.3 (36.8)
 % reduction in 1st MTPJ peak pressure 19.5 (18.0) 11.2 (19.8)
Credibility and Expectancy Questionnaire
 Credibility–mean (SD) 21.0 (3.6) 21.3 (3.3)
 Expectancy–mean (SD) 17.1 (5.3) 19.1 (4.4)
Footwear perceptions (100 mm visual analog scales)
 Shoe attractiveness (to self)–mean (SD) 40.1 (20.4) 50.7 (26.3)
 Shoe attractiveness (to others)–mean (SD) 38.4 (20.7) 48.7 (21.8)
 Shoe comfort–mean (SD) 61.6 (26.6) 64.3 (18.5)
 Ease of donning and doffing shoes–mean (SD) 76.6 (21.1) 79.6 (16.5)
 Perception of shoe fit–median (IQR) 82.0 (21.0) 77.5 (16.0)
 Perception of shoe heaviness–mean (SD) 46.1 (25.2) 44.7 (18.7)
Total hours intervention worn during study–mean (SD) 278 (200) 320 (179)
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range
  2. alower scores indicate worse health status/greater impairment
  3. bhigher scores indicate worse health status/greater impairment
  4. * p < 0.05