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Table 1 Differences between demographic and clinical variables in patients with hand joint destruction compared to those without hand joint destruction

From: Factors associated with hand joint destruction in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Variables Overall sample
(N = 161)
Non-hand joint destruction (Sharp score = 0; N = 85) Hand joint destruction
(Sharp score > 0; N = 76)
χ 2/t/z P-value
Demographic factors
Female gender, no. (%) 135 (83.9) 69 (81.2) 66 (86.8) 0.95* 0.329
Age, mean (SD) years 53.7 (12.9) 52.7 (13.7) 54.8 (12.1) −1.03** 0.303
BMI, mean (SD) kg/m2 22.0 (3.4) 22.3 (3.3) 21.6 (3.5) −1.29** 0.198
Education, years, no. (%)     5.58* 0.018
  ≤ 9 years 122 (75.8) 58 (68.2) 64 (84.2)   
  > 9 years 39 (24.2) 27 (31.8) 12 (15.8)   
Employment status, no. (%)     0.01* 0.946
 Employed 97 (60.2) 51 (60) 46 (60.5)   
 Unemployed 64 (39.8) 34 (40) 30 (39.5)   
Income/person/month, USD, no. (%)     0.28* 0.599
  ≤ 435 USD 144 (89.4) 75 (88.2) 69 (90.8)   
  > 435 USD 17 (10.6) 10 (11.8) 7 (9.2)   
Personal health insurance, no. (%)     0.07* 0.785
 Yes 117 (72.7) 61 (71.8) 56 (73.7)   
 No 44 (27.3) 24 (28.2) 20 (26.3)   
Tobacco usage, no. (%)     2.42* 0.120
 Yes 17 (10.6) 12 (14.1) 5 (6.6)   
 No 144 (89.4) 73 (85.9) 71 (93.4)   
Alcohol usage, no. (%)     1.66* 0.197
 Yes 23 (14.3) 15 (17.6) 8 (10.6)   
 No 138 (85.7) 70 (82.4) 68 (89.4)   
Clinical factors
Comorbidities, yes, no. (%)     2.34* 0.127
 Yes 34 (21.1) 14 (16.5) 20 (26.3)   
 No 127 (78.9) 71 (83.5) 56 (73.7)   
Disease duration, median (IQR) years 4.1 (9) 2 (4.5) 9.5 (13.5) −6.64 <0.001
VAS pain (range 0–10), median (IQR) 5 (6) 3 (6) 5 (6.5) −1.05 0.294
DAS28-ESR, median (IQR) 3.3 (1.7) 2.9 (1.6) 3.6 (1.8) −3.35 0.001
DMARDs usage, no. (%)     4.98* 0.026
 Yes 152 (94.4) 77 (90.6) 75 (98.7)   
 No 9 (5.6) 8 (9.4) 1 (1.3)   
Corticosteroids usage, no. (%)     9.32* 0.002
 Yes 92 (57.1) 39 (45.9) 53 (69.7)   
 No 69 (42.9) 46 (54.1) 23 (30.3)   
Biologics usage, no. (%)     0.02* 0.889
 Yes 11 (6.8) 3 (3.5) 3 (3.9)   
 No 150 (93.2) 82 (96.5) 73 (96.1)   
ESR, median (IQR) mm/h 22 (38) 20 (35.5) 23.5 (50.5) −0.90 0.367
CRP, median (IQR) mg/l 7.5 (12.4) 5.9 (13.6) 8.2 (20.6) −1.60 0.110
RF positive, no. (%)     12.68* <0.001
 Yes 109 (67.7) 47 (55.3) 62 (81.9)   
 No 52 (32.3) 38 (44.7) 14 (18.1)   
Anti-CCP antibody positive, no. (%)     15.45* <0.001
 Yes 104 (64.6) 43 (50.6) 61 (80.3)   
 No 57 (35.4) 42 (49.4) 15 (19.7)   
  1. IQR Interquartile range, BMI body mass index, VAS visual analog scale, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, DMARDs disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, RF rheumatoid factor, Anti-CCP anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide
  2. *Chi-square test
  3. **Independent t-tests