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Table 7 Prevalence ratios (PR) of 12-months prevalence of symptoms

From: Risk assessment of manual handling operations at work with the key indicator method (KIM-MHO) — determination of criterion validity regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and clinical conditions within a cross-sectional study

Body regions by gender* Risk category 1 (Reference)
Employees in jobs with low MHO, < 10 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 2
Employees in jobs with MHO, 10 – 24 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 3
Employees in jobs with MHO, 25 – 49 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 4
Employees in jobs with MHO, ≥ 50 points KIM-MHO
Women n = 306 n = 75 n = 59 n = 73
 neck/cervical spine 1 (ref.) 1.0 (0.9 – 1.2) 1.3 (1.1 – 1.5) 1.2 (1.0 – 1.4)
 shoulder/upper arm 1 (ref.) 1.2 (0.9 – 1.5) 1.4 (1.1 – 1.7) 1.3 (1.0 – 1.6)
 elbow/forearm 1 (ref.) 1.6 (0.9 – 2.7) 1.9 (1.2 – 3.1) 2.9 (2.0 – 4.3)
 hand/wrist 1 (ref.) 0.9 (0.5 – 1.4) 1.8 (1.3 – 2.6) 2.7 (2.1 – 3.5)
 lower back/lumbar spine 1 (ref.) 0.8 (0.5 – 1.2) 2.0 (1.6 – 2.6) 2.0 (1.6 – 2.6)
Men n = 498 n = 173 n = 23 n = 239
 neck/cervical spine 1 (ref.) 1.0 (0.8 – 1.2) 1.6 (1.3 – 2.0) 1.1 (0.9 – 1.3)
 shoulder/upper arm 1 (ref.) 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3) 2.0 (1.5 – 2.8) 1.6 (1.4 – 2.0)
 elbow/forearm 1 (ref.) 1.1 (0.7 – 1.6) 1.2 (0.5 – 3.2) 2.7 (2.0 – 3.5)
 hand/wrist 1 (ref.) 1.2 (0.8 – 1.6) 2.7 (1.7 – 4.4) 3.2 (2.6 – 4.1)
 lower back/lumbar spine 1 (ref.) 1.2 (0.9 – 1.6) 2.8 (2.0 – 4.0) 2.9 (2.4 – 3.5)
  1. *Prevalence Ratios (PR) of symptoms in different body regions stratified by exposure to manual handling operations (MHO) according to KIM-MHO risk categories. Significant values are marked in bold letters. [Prevalence Ratios, 95%-CI. Log-linear Poisson regression, robust estimation of variance. Each model adjusted by age, body-mass-index and body height]