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Table 6 Prevalence Ratios (PR) of the 7-day prevalence of symptoms

From: Risk assessment of manual handling operations at work with the key indicator method (KIM-MHO) — determination of criterion validity regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and clinical conditions within a cross-sectional study

Body regions by gender* Risk category 1 (Reference)
Employees in jobs with low MHO, < 10 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 2
Employees in jobs with MHO, 10 – 24 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 3
Employees in jobs with MHO, 25 – 49 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 4
Employees in jobs with MHO, ≥ 50 points KIM-MHO
Women n = 306 n = 75 n = 59 n = 73
 neck/cervical spine 1 (ref.) 0.8 (0.5 – 1.3) 1.5 (1.0 – 2.1) 1.8 (1.3 – 2.3)
 shoulder/upper arm 1 (ref.) 1.0 (0.6 – 1.6) 1.8 (1.2 – 2.7) 1.9 (1.3 – 2.8)
 elbow/forearm 1 (ref.) 0.6 (0.1 – 2.8) 3.3 (1.5 – 7.2) 4.5 (2.3 – 8.7)
 hand/wrist 1 (ref.) 0.5 (0.2 – 1.7) 3.0 (1.7 – 5.3) 4.2 (2.6 – 6.9)
 lower back/lumbar spine 1 (ref.) 0.8 (0.4 – 1.7) 2.5 (1.6 – 4.0) 2.2 (1.4 – 3.5)
Men n = 498 n = 173 n = 23 n = 239
 neck/cervical spine 1 (ref.) 0.8 (0.5 – 1.2) 1.0 (0.4 – 2.5) 1.2 (0.9 – 1.7)
 shoulder/upper arm 1 (ref.) 0.8 (0.5 – 1.3) 2.3 (1.2 – 4.4) 1.9 (1.3 – 2.7)
 elbow/forearm 1 (ref.) 0.9 (0.4 – 1.9) 2.4 (0.8 – 7.3) 3.3 (2.1 – 5.4)
 hand/wrist 1 (ref.) 1.2 (0.6 – 2.3) 5.5 (2.7 – 11.3) 5.5 (3.5 – 8.5)
 lower back/lumbar spine 1 (ref.) 1.6 (0.9 – 2.7) 4.9 (2.5 – 9.4) 4.7 (3.1 – 7.1)
  1. *Prevalence Ratios of symptoms stratified by exposure to manual handling operations (MHO) according to KIM-MHO risk categories. Significant values are marked in bold letters
  2. [Prevalence Ratios, 95%-CI. Log-linear Poisson regression, robust estimation of variance. One model per body region stratified by gender. Each model adjusted by age, body-mass-index and body height]