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Table 5 Estimated mean 12-months prevalence of symptoms by exposure to MHO

From: Risk assessment of manual handling operations at work with the key indicator method (KIM-MHO) — determination of criterion validity regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and clinical conditions within a cross-sectional study

Body regions by gender* Risk category 1 (Reference)
Employees in jobs with low MHO, < 10 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 2
Employees in jobs with MHO, 10 – 24 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 3
Employees in jobs with MHO, 25 – 49 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 4
Employees in jobs with MHO, ≥ 50 points KIM-MHO
All employees
Women n = 306 n = 75 n = 59 n = 73 n = 513
 neck/cervical spine 66.3% (61.1% – 71.9%) 68.1% (58.0% – 80.0%) 84.2% (75.5% – 93.8%) 78.7% (69.3% – 89.4%) 74.0% (69.6% – 78.6%)
 shoulder/upper arm 45.6% (40.3% – 51.7%) 53.2% (42.5% – 66.5%) 62.3% (51.4% – 75.5%) 57.1% (47.3% – 69.1%) 54.2% (49.3% – 59.6%)
 elbow/forearm 13.5% (10.1% – 18.1%) 21.2% (13.4% – 33.5%) 26.0% (17.9% – 37.9%) 39.7% (30.3% – 52.0%) 23.3% (19.3% – 28.1%)
 hand/wrist 25.0% (20.5% – 30.5%) 21.3% (13.7% – 33.3%) 46.1% (35.0% – 60.6%) 67.7% (57.0% – 80.5%) 35.9% (30.9% – 41.7%)
 lower back/lumbar spine 34.3% (29.3% – 40.2%) 26.4% (18.1% – 38.6%) 69.3% (58.1% – 82.6%) 69.9% (59.3% – 82.3%) 45.7% (40.6% – 51.5%)
Men n = 498 n = 173 n = 23 n = 239 n = 933
 neck/ cervical spine 48.7% (44.5% – 53.4%) 46.7% (39.8% – 54.8%) 77.7% (62.7% – 96.5%) 52.2% (46.0% – 59.3%) 55.1% (51.0% – 59.6%)
 shoulder/upper arm 32.2% (28.3% – 36.6%) 31.5% (25.4% – 39.2%) 65.1% (48.8% – 86.9%) 52.6% (46.2% – 59.9%) 43.2% (39.0% – 47.8%)
 elbow/forearm 14.0% (11.2% – 17.3%) 15.2% (10.6% – 21.7%) 17.3% (6.9% – 43.3%) 37.1% (31.0% – 44.4%) 19.2% (14.9% – 24.8%)
 hand/wrist 17.9% (14.8% – 21.7%) 20.7% (15.4% – 27.9%) 49.2% (32.2% – 75.0%) 58.1% (51.6% – 65.4%) 32.1% (27.9% – 36.9%)
 lower back/lumbar spine 23.6% (20.1% – 27.7%) 27.4% (21.6% – 34.9%) 66.9% (50.0% – 89.4%) 68.6% (62.5% – 75.3%) 41.5% (37.4% – 46.1%)
  1. *Estimated mean prevalence of symptoms in different body regions stratified by exposure to manual handling operations (MHO) according to KIM-MHO risk categories. [Prevalence, 95%-CI, adjusted by age, body-mass-index and body height]