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Table 4 Unadjusted (raw) prevalence of symptoms in the last 12 months

From: Risk assessment of manual handling operations at work with the key indicator method (KIM-MHO) — determination of criterion validity regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and clinical conditions within a cross-sectional study

Body region by gender* Risk category 1 (Reference)
Employees in jobs with low MHO, < 10 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 2
Employees in jobs with MHO, 10 – 24 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 3
Employees in jobs with MHO, 25 – 49 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 4
Employees in jobs with MHO, ≥ 50 points KIM-MHO
All employees
Women n = 306 n = 75 n = 59 n = 73 n = 513
 neck/cervical spine 201/304 (66.1%) 51/75 (68.0%) 50/59 (84.7%) 58/73 (79.5%) 360/511 (70.5%)
 shoulder/upper arm 64/306 (20.9%) 13/75 (17.3%) 16/59 (27.1%) 24/73 (32.9%) 117/513 (22.8%)
 elbow/forearm 42/306 (13.7%) 17/75 (22.7%) 18/59 (30.5%) 38/73 (52.1%) 115/513 (22.4%)
 hand/wrist 78/306 (25.5%) 17/75 (22.7%) 29/59 (49.2%) 53/73 (72.6%) 177/513 (34.5%)
 lower back/lumbar spine 107/303 (35.3%) 20/75 (26.7%) 42/59 (71.2%) 51/73 (69.9%) 220/510 (43.1%)
Men n = 498 n = 173 n = 23 n = 239 n = 930
 neck/cervical spine 244/498 (49.0%) 80/173 (46.2%) 18/23 (78.3%) 124/236 (52.5%) 466/930 (50.1%)
 shoulder/upper arm 60/498 (12.0%) 29/173 (16.8%) 6/23 (26.1%) 54/236 (22.9%) 149/930 (16.0%)
 elbow/forearm 72/498 (14.5%) 26/173 (15.0%) 4/23 (17.4%) 85/232 (36.6%) 187/926 (20.2%)
 hand/wrist 91/498 (18.3%) 36/173 (20.8%) 11/23 (47.8%) 137/235 (58.3%) 275/929 (29.6%)
 lower back/lumbar spine 117/498 (23.5%) 47/171 (27.5%) 15/22 (68.2%) 172/239 (72.0%) 351/930 (37.7%)
  1. *Unadjusted (raw) prevalence of symptoms in the last 12 months for different body regions by exposure to manual handling operations (MHO) according to KIM-MHO risk categories. Number of cases with symptoms/number of all available subjects (percentage of cases to all subjects)