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Table 3 Estimated mean prevalence of symptoms in the last 7 days by exposure to MHO

From: Risk assessment of manual handling operations at work with the key indicator method (KIM-MHO) — determination of criterion validity regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and clinical conditions within a cross-sectional study

Body regions by gender* Risk category 1 (Reference)
Employees in jobs with low MHO, < 10 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 2
Employees in jobs with MHO, 10 – 24 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 3
Employees in jobs with MHO, 25 – 49 points KIM-MHO
Risk category 4
Employees in jobs with MHO, ≥ 50 points KIM-MHO
All employees
Women n = 306 n = 75 n = 59 n = 73 n = 513
 neck/cervical spine 29.7% (24.9% – 35.4%) 23.9% (15.9% – 36.0%) 43.4% (32.4% – 58.1%) 52.0% (41.3% – 65.5%) 35.6% (30.7% – 41.2%)
 shoulder/upper arm 19.9% (15.8% – 25.1%) 19.5% (12.4% – 30.9%) 35.6% (25.3% – 50.2%) 38.0% (28.4% – 50.8%) 27.0% (22.6% – 32.1%)
 elbow/forearm 4.3% (2.5% – 7.4%) 2.7% (0.7% – 10.8%) 14.1% (7.9% – 25.0%) 19.3% (12.4% – 29.9%) 7.5% (5.0% – 11.3%)
 hand/wrist 8.0% (5.4% – 11.8%) 4.2% (1.4% – 12.5%) 23.8% (15.5% – 36.7%) 33.7% (24.1% – 47.1%) 12.8% (9.3% – 17.7%)
 lower back/lumbar spine 13.8% (10.4% – 18.4%) 11.3% (5.9% – 21.8%) 35.1% (24.6% – 50.2%) 30.6% (21.5% – 43.6%) 20.2% (16.2% – 25.2%)
Men n = 498 n = 173 n = 23 n = 239 n = 933
 neck/ cervical spine 16.5% (13.5% – 20.2%) 12.9% (8.7% – 19.0%) 16.7% (6.8% – 40.9%) 20.2% (15.5% – 26.4%) 16.4% (12.6% – 21.2%)
 shoulder/upper arm 12.6% (9.9% – 15.9%) 9.8% (6.3% – 15.3%) 28.6% (15.5% – 53.0%) 23.6% (18.5% – 30.2%) 17.0% (13.8% – 21.0%)
 elbow/forearm 5.1% (3.6% – 7.4%) 4.6% (2.4% – 8.8%) 12.1% (4.1% – 36.1%) 17.1% (12.5% – 23.4%) 8.3% (5.9% – 11.8%)
 hand/wrist 5.5% (3.8% – 8.0%) 6.4% (3.6% – 11.3%) 30.8% (16.8% – 56.3%) 30.4% (24.6% – 37.7%) 13.5% (10.7% – 17.0%)
 lower back/lumbar spine 6.8% (4.9% – 9.5%) 10.9% (7.1% – 16.6%) 33.4% (19.0% – 58.6%) 32.2% (26.2% – 39.7%) 16.8% (13.7% – 20.6%)
  1. *Estimated mean prevalence of symptoms stratified by the exposure to manual handling operations (MHO) according to KIM-MHO risk categories. Based on regression models with 95%-CI, adjusted by age, body-mass-index and body height