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Table 1 Summary of included studies (n = 12)

From: Restriction in lateral bending range of motion, lumbar lordosis, and hamstring flexibility predicts the development of low back pain: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies

Study Participants Description of LBP/determination of a previous episode Outcome measure (e.g. survey) # that developed LBP in follow up year
Adams et al [29] n = 403
Mean age (yr) = 27
Population = Health care workers
Gender = 92% F
Region: United Kingdom
History of LBP: n = 141
Pain free at baseline: not stated
Self-administered postal questionnaire, n = 399 (1% percent lost in follow up period) n = 159 (39.5%) first time LBP
Biering-Sorensen et al [30] n = 928
Mean age (yr) = not stated, range 30-60
Population = community members
Gender = 52% F
Region: Denmark
History of LBP: not stated
Pain free at baseline: not stated
Self-administered postal questionnaire or telephone, n = 920 (1% percent lost in follow up period) n = 170 (M), 185 (F) [recurrence or persistence of LBP]; n = 28 (M), 30 (F) [first time LBP 6.3%]
Feldman et al [31] n = 810
Mean age (yr) = 14.1
Population = Adolescent students
Gender = 47% F
Region: Canada
History of LBP: n = 125
Pain free at baseline: not stated
Self-administered questionnaire, n = 502 (38% lost in follow up period) n = 65 developed first time LBP (17.2%))
Fortin et al [40] n = 99
Mean age (yr) = 47.3
Population = Monozygotic twins
Gender = 0% F
Region: Finland
History of LBP: 68
Pain free at baseline: not stated
Numeric pain scale, n = 98 (1% lost in follow up period) n = 68 (recurrence or persistence of LBP, 69.4%)
Gibbons et al [32] n = 130
Mean age (years) = 48
Population = Twins
Gender = 0% F
Region: Finland
History of LBP: n = 85 (in past year)
Pain free at baseline: yes
Telephone, n = 128 (2% lost in follow up period) n = 13 developed first time LBP (out of 43 that reported no history of LBP at baseline, 30.2%)); n = not reported for those 85 participants that declared a history of LBP in 12/12 before baseline testing
Kanchanomai et al [33] n = 684
Mean age (years) = 19.4
Population = University students
Gender = 74% F
Region: Thailand
History of LBP: n = 0 (in past 3 months)
Pain free at baseline: yes
Self-administered questionnaire, n = 524 (23% lost in follow up period) n = 160 (23.4%) developed first time LBP
Kountouris et al [34] n = 23
Mean age (years) = 24
Population = Elite fast bowlers
Gender = 0% F
Region: Australia
History of LBP: n = not stated
Pain free at baseline: yes
Sports Medicine Physician and MRI, n = 23 (0% lost in follow up period) n = 18 developed first time LBP (72.3%)
Kujala et al [35] n = 138
Mean age (years) = not stated, range 10.3-13.3
Population = athletes and non-athletes
Gender = not stated, 56% F at follow up
Region: Finland
History of LBP: n = 28 (in past year)
Pain free at baseline: not stated
Self-administered postal questionnaire, n = 119 (14% lost in follow up period) n = 24 (11 recurrence of LBP [39.3%], 13 first time LBP [11.8%)
Luoto et al [36] n = 167
Mean age (years) = not stated
Population = blue and white collar workers
Gender = 56% F
Region: Finland
History of LBP: n = 0 (in past year)
Pain free at baseline: yes
Nordic questionnaire, n = 126 (25% lost in follow up period) n = 33 developed first time LBP (19.8%)
Milgrom et al [37] n = 395
Mean age (years) = 18
Population = infantry recruits
Gender = 0% F
Region: Israel
History of LBP: n = 0
Pain free at baseline: not stated
Physical examination, n = not clear how many were lost in follow up period n = 40 developed first time LBP (10.1%)
Nissinen et al [39] n = 859
Mean age (years) = 12.8
Population = School children
Gender = 48% F
Region: Finland
History of LBP: n = 0 (in past year)
Pain free at baseline
Self-administered standardised pain questionnaire, n = 859 (0% lost in follow up period) n = 151 developed first time LBP (17.6%)
Van Nieuwenhuyse et al [38] n = 823
Mean age (years) = 26
Population = workers at health care and distribution facilities
Gender = 60% F
Region: Belgium
History of LBP: n = 337 (in past year)
Pain free at baseline: n = 688 (4 of the participants with history of LBP reported LBP at baseline)
Self-administered questionnaire, n = 692 (16% lost in follow up period) n = 34 developed first time LBP (out of 355 that reported no history of LBP at baseline, 9.6%), n = 52 (out of 337 that reported LBP in 12/12 before testing, 15.4%)
  1. F female, M male, LBP low back pain