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Table 3 Comparison between healthy and chronic low back pain subjects

From: The influence of fatigue and chronic low back pain on muscle recruitment patterns following an unexpected external perturbation

  Principal effect gl F Sig (p) pŋ2 Power Post hoc/Simple factor
Start 1st Burst Group 47(1) 3.834 0.056 0.075 0.483  
  Muscle   58.069 ≤0.001 0.553 1.000 BB < IO < SE,RM,LM,EO
  Interaction   0.555 0.686 0.012 0.179  
  Group mean difference (95% CI) = 8% (−17, 0.0) for start 1rst Burst
Start 2nd Burst Group 34(1) 0.270 0.607 0.008 0.080  
  Muscle   5.250 0.002 0.134 0.933 BB,EO > SE,RM,LM
  Interaction   0.565 0.651 0.016 0.168  
  Group mean difference (95% CI) = 4% (−13, 22) for start 2nd Burst
Duration 1st Burst Group 47(1) 1.038 0.314 0.022 0.170  
  Muscle   58.160 ≤0.001 0.553 1.000 BB > EO,IO > SE > LM
  Interaction   1.009 0.378 0.021 0.240 RM < BB > EO,IO
  Group mean difference (95% CI) = 11% (−11, 33) for duration 1st Burst
Duration 2nd Burst Group 34(1) 0.010 0.919 0.000 0.051  
  Muscle   33.709 ≤0.001 0.498 1.000 BB,IO > EO > SE,RM,LM
  Interaction   2.408 0.089 0.066 0.508  
  Group mean difference (95% CI) = 0% (−6, 5) for duration 2nd Burst
Num Bursts post impact Group 47(1) 0.271 0.605 0.006 0.080  
  Muscle   1.596 0.181 0.033 0.469  
  Interaction   1.596 0.181 0.033 0.469  
  Group mean difference (95% CI) = 0.56% (−0.16, 0.27) for Num Bursts post impact
Post/Pre Ratio Group 47(1) 0.976 0.328 0.020 0.162  
  Muscle   39.166 0.000 0.455 1.000 BB > IO > EO > RM,LM LM < SE < BB > IO
  Interaction   0.425 0.618 0.009 0.111  
  Group mean difference (95% CI) = 0.22% (−0.67, 0.22) for Post/Pre Ratio
Co-co post impact Group 48(1) 1.587 0.214 0.032 0.235  
  Muscle   71.833 ≤0.001 0.599 1.000 SE&EO < SE&IO < EO&IO
  Interaction   0.554 0.499 0.011 0.120  
  Group mean difference (95% CI)= 15.19% (-9.05, 39.43) for co-co post impact
  1. Significant ANOVA results corresponding to the comparisons between healthy subjects and those with chronic low back pain (group factor) and between muscles (muscle factor) for variables describing the timing and variables describing the amount of muscle activity post impact. Num bursts post impact number of bursts following the impact, Post/Pre Ratio ratio of root mean square of the post impact EMG signal amplitude and pre impact EMG signal amplitude, Co-co post impact co-contraction levels after the impact, BB biceps brachii, SE thoracic spinal erector, RM right multifidus, LM left multifidus, EO external oblique, IO internal oblique