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Table 3 Visual grading of fat in the multifidus muscles in the two analysis- / treatment groups by level at pre-treatment

From: Fat in the lumbar multifidus muscles - predictive value and change following disc prosthesis surgery and multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative disc: 2-year follow-up of a randomized trial

  Predictor analysis (n = 147) Analysis of change in fat infiltration (n = 126)
  Rehab (n = 64) Surgery (n = 83) Rehab (n = 63) Surgery (n = 63)
Gradea 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2
L3/L4 (n / %) 60 (93.8) 4 (6.3) 0 (0) 77 (92.8) 6 (7.2) 0 (0) 60 (95.2) 3 (4.8) 0 (0) 58 (92.1) 5 (7.9) 0 (0)
L4/L5 (n / %) 48 (75.0) 16 (25.0) 0 (0) 61 (73.5) 22 (26.5) 0 (0) 47 (74.6) 16 (25.4) 0 (0) 49 (77.8) 14 (22.2) 0 (0)
L5/S1 (n / %) 33 (51.6) 31 (48.4) 0 (0) 36 (43.4) 46 (55.4) 1 (1.2) 32 (50.8) 31 (49.2) 0 (0) 29 (46.0) 33 (52.4) 1 (1.6)
  1. aGrading according to the criteria Kjaer et al [9] and Solgaard et al [31]: Grade 0: 0 or <20% of total cross-section (left plus right side) contains fat, Grade 1: 20%–50% of cross-section (left plus right side) contains fat, Grade 2: >50% of cross-section (left plus right side) contains fat