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Table 5 Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions with all psychological factors and pain intensities entered simultaneously as predictors of: 1) the number of pain sites among subjects reporting the same NPS at T1 and T2 (N = 1201), 2) the number of pain sites decreased among subjects that reported a higher number of pain sites at T1 (N = 909), and 3) the number of pain sites increased among subjects that a higher number of pain sites at T2 (N = 963)

From: Psychological predictors of change in the number of musculoskeletal pain sites among Norwegian employees: a prospective study

Sub-sample: Employees reporting stable number of pain sites (T1 NPS = T2 NPS) Employees reporting decreased number of pain sites (T1 NPS > T2 NPS) Employees reporting increased number of pain sites (T1 NPS < T2 NPS)
Outcome variable: Number of pain sites Number of pain sites decreased Number of pain sites increased (spread)
T1 Predictor OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Emotional exhaustion 1.00 [0.70–1.43] 0.94 [0.65–1.34] 0.99 [0.69–1.41]
Mental distress (HSCL) 0.88 [0.45–1.71] 0.57 [0.29–1.11] 1.16 [0.59–2.29]
Depression (single item) 1.07 [0.75–1.52] 0.74 [0.50–1.08] 0.69 [0.48–0.98] *
Anxiety (single item) 0.51 [0.29–0.88] * 0.63 [0.34–1.11] 1.48 [0.97–2.23]
Psychological well-being
“Had a lot of surplus” 1.23 [1.06–1.43] ** 1.04 [0.89–1.21] 0.84 [0.73–0.97] *
“Felt down and sad” 1.08 [0.88–1.32] 1.19 [0.97–1.45] 1.01 [0.84–1.22]
Dispositional optimism 0.93 [0.72–1.20] 0.89 [0.68–1.17] 0.85 [0.66–1.09]
General self-efficacy 1.03 [0.76–1.38] 0.89 [0.65–1.21] 0.95 [0.72–1.25]
Job satisfaction 1.03 [0.82–1.30] 0.87 [0.68–1.13] 0.96 [0.75–1.22]
Sleep disturbance 1.06 [0.88–1.27] 0.97 [0.80–1.17] 1.24 [1.03–1.49] *
Tiredness 1.28 [1.00–1.64] * 1.09 [0.84–1.41] 0.94 [0.74–1.18]
Restlessness 1.58 [1.16–2.14] ** 1.07 [0.78–1.46] 0.90 [0.68–1.19]
Pain intensity
Headache 0.92 [0.75–1.12] 0.93 [0.75–1.15] 1.14 [0.93–1.39]
Neck pain 5.33 [4.14–6.92] *** 0.61 [0.47–0.79] *** 0.80 [0.59–1.08]
Shoulder pain 6.78 [5.26–8.82] *** 0.89 [0.69–1.15] 0.75 [0.54–1.01]
Arm pain 6.33 [4.94–8.19] *** 0.89 [0.71–1.12] 1.02 [0.72–1.42]
Leg pain 6.85 [5.29–8.97] *** 0.85 [0.67–1.07] 0.79 [0.58–1.05]
Back pain 5.85 [4.61–7.48] *** 0.73 [0.58–0.92] ** 0.70 [0.46–1.02]
Number of pain sites - - 3.11 [2.45–3.98] *** 0.86 [0.62–1.19]
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Note: The regressions with decrease and increase as outcome were adjusted for sex, age group, skill level, and T1 NPS