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Table 3 Separate ordinal logistic regressions relating psychological factors and pain intensities at T1 to: 1) the number of pain sites among subjects reporting the same NPS at T1 and T2, 2) the number of pain sites decreased among subjects that reported a higher number of pain sites at T1, and 3) the number of pain sites increased among subjects that a higher number of pain sites at T2

From: Psychological predictors of change in the number of musculoskeletal pain sites among Norwegian employees: a prospective study

Sub-sample: Employees reporting stable number of pain sites (T1 NPS = T2 NPS) Employees reporting decreased number of pain sites (T1 NPS > T2 NPS) Employees reporting increased number of pain sites (T1 NPS < T2 NPS)
Outcome variable: Number of pain sites Number of pain sites decreased Number of pain sites increased (spread)
T1 Predictor N OR 95% CI N OR 95% CI N OR 95% CI
Emotional exhaustion 1444 3.99 [3.38–4.73]*** 1080 0.64 [0.51–0.80]** 1162 1.34 [1.10–1.64]**
Mental distress (HSCL) 1515 7.10 [5.47–9.24]*** 1124 0.45 [0.31–0.65]** 1208 1.67 [1.22–2.30]**
Depression (single item) 1601 2.30 [1.95–2.72] *** 1194 0.64 [0.51–0.80]*** 1286 0.99 [0.79–1.24]
Anxiety (single item) 1598 3.05 [2.33–4.00] *** 1192 0.45 [0.29–0.67]*** 1288 1.40 [1.03–1.90]*
Psychological well-being
“Had a lot of surplus” 1541 0.58 [0.53–0.62]*** 1146 1.21 [1.08–1.35]** 1245 0.83 [0.75–0.92]**
“Felt down and sad” 1536 1.64 [1.47–1.84]*** 1147 0.90 [0.78–1.04] 1242 1.09 [0.96–1.24]
Dispositional optimism 1578 0.60 [0.52–0.70] *** 1175 1.15 [0.93–1.41] 1255 0.85 [0.71–1.02]
General self-efficacy 1577 1.16 [0.97–1.38] 1177 0.77 [0.61–0.98]* 1263 1.15 [0.92–1.42]
Job satisfaction 1442 0.50 [0.43–0.59] *** 1068 1.19 [0.96–1.47] 1148 0.83 [0.68–1.03]
Sleep disturbance 1537 1.90 [1.73–2.10]*** 1154 0.80 [0.70–0.92]** 1231 1.29 [1.14–1.47]**
Tiredness 1606 2.50 [2.21–2.82]*** 1197 0.81 [0.68–0.96]* 1287 1.15 [0.98–1.35]
Restlessness 1604 2.12 [1.83–2.46]*** 1194 0.76 [0.62–0.93]** 1289 1.20 [0.98–1.45]
Pain intensity
Headache 1608 3.04 [2.67–3.46]*** 1196 0.83 [0.70–0.98]* 1292 1.24 [1.06–1.46]**
Neck pain 1610 9.15 [7.85–10.71]*** 1197 0.67 [0.55–0.81]** 1293 1.04 [0.86–2.35]
Shoulder pain 1610 8.70 [7.44–10.22]*** 1197 0.89 [0.73–1.08] 1293 0.83 [0.66–1.03]
Arm pain 1610 6.01 [5.07–7.17]*** 1197 0.94 [0.77–1.13] 1293 0.80 [0.59–1.05]
Leg pain 1610 4.47 [3.82–5.26]*** 1197 0.89 [0.74–1.08] 1293 1.04 [0.82–1.32]
Back pain 1610 5.76 [5.01–6.64]*** 1197 0.79 [0.65–0.94]** 1293 1.12 [0.93–1.35]
Number of pain sites - - - 1197 1.90 [1.71–2.12]** 1293 0.71 [0.64–0.79]**
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Note: All regressions with decrease and increase as outcome were adjusted for sex, age group, skill level, and T1 NPS. For these regressions subjects that reported no pain sites at T1 were included in the increase group and subjects reporting five pain sites at T1 were included in the decrease group