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Table 3 Secondary outcomes and parameter estimates for interventions groups versus control group, and between group comparisons

From: Effects of yoga, strength training and advice on back pain: a randomized controlled trial

  Kundalini yoga (n = 45) Strength training (n = 39) Control group (n = 36)
Neck pain intensity, mean (SD)a
 Baseline 44.4 (24.5) 46.5 (24.4) 37.6 (26.1)
 6-month follow-up 35.0 (21.1) 29.8 (20.7) 34.3 (27.2)
 b (CI)b - 4.8 (- 12.2; 2.5) - 7.0 (- 14.7; 0.7)  
 b (CI)c   - 2.35 (- 9.42; 4.72)  
Back pain intensity, mean (SD)a
 Baseline 57.1 (18.5) 57.7 (15.4) 55.6 (18.7)
 6-month follow-up 47.0 (24.3) 41.7 (20.6) 50.2 (23.9)
 b (CI)b - 6.5 (- 14.9; 1.8) - 9.4 (- 18.1; - 0.8)*  
 b (CI)c   - 2.89 (- 10.92; 5.14)  
Neck disability, mean (SD)a
 Baseline 25.0 (23.3) 28.5 (24.1) 23.7 (22.7)
 6-month follow-up 16.3 (20.1) 13.3 (18.3) 21.5 (26.4)
 b (CI)b - 8.7 (- 16.0; - 1.3)* - 9.6 (- 17.2; - 2.0)*  
 b (CI)c   - 1.01 (- 7.31; 5.30)  
Back disability, mean (SD)a
 Baseline 37.2 (23.4) 37.6 (20.9) 38.6 (21.4)
 6-month follow-up 29.4 (24.2) 24.8 (24.2) 32.8 (27.8)
 b (CI)b - 6.0 (- 15.6; 3.6) - 9.5 (- 19.3; 0.4)  
 b (CI)c   - 3.46 (- 12.23; 5.32)  
  1. *p = < 0.05; **p = <0.01; ***p = <0.001. aFrom the CPGS, ranged from 0 to 100 where higher scores indicate worse pain intensity and disability due to back and neck pain. b Parameter estimates (b) with parenthesized confidence intervals (95%) from linear model adjusted for baseline scores on the respective outcome variables, comparing kundalini yoga or strength training versus CG. cEstimates of differences from ANCOVA comparing kundalini yoga versus strength training at the 6-month follow-up, kundalini yoga served as the reference group. Abbreviations SD Standard Deviation, CI Confidence Interval