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Table 1 Description of burden measures

From: Associations between multimorbidity and additional burden for working-age adults with specific forms of musculoskeletal conditions: a cross-sectional study

Burden Measure Description Timeframe
Self-rated health
 Fair to poor health status A response of either “fair” or “poor” [59] to the question “In general would you say that [your/(proxy name)] health is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor” [59]. In the four weeks prior to interview
 High distress A Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 (K10) score indicating high (>22 points) to very high severity of distress (30-50 points) [60]. In the four weeks prior to interview
 Pain interference with activities A response of “moderately” to “extremely” to the extent bodily pain interfered with normal work. Response options: not at all; a little bit; moderately; quite a bit; extremely and did not experience bodily pain. In the four weeks prior to interview
 Moderate to severe pain rating A response of “moderate”, “severe” or “very severe” to the extent of bodily pain felt. Response options: none; very mild; mild; moderate; severe; or very severe. In the four weeks prior to interview
Musculoskeletal-related a healthcare and medicines utilisation
 Visit general practitioner (GP) for arthritis or osteoporosis Self-reports of arthritis or osteoporosis-related GP consultations. In the two weeks prior to the interview
 Visit arthritis or osteoporosis specialist(s) Self-reports of arthritis or osteoporosis-related specialist consultations. In the two weeks prior to the interview
 Pain medicines use Self-reports of pain medicines use including analgesics. In the two weeks prior to the interview
 Musculoskeletal (MSK) medicines use Self-reports of up to three MSK-related, main pharmaceutical medicines used. This included vitamins and mineral supplements such as vitamin D, calcium, glucosamine and various marine-based products, natural or herbal treatments. In the two weeks prior to the interview
General healthcare utilisation
 Visit other specialist(s) Self-reports of consulting a specialist for condition other than arthritis or osteoporosis. In the 12 months prior to the interview
 Visit physiotherapist(s) Self-reports of consulting a physiotherapist. In the 12 months prior to the interview
 Did not visit health professional (HP). Self-reports of not consulting a health professional. In the 12 months prior to the interview
 Visit chemist(s) for advice only Self-reports of consulting a chemist for advice only (i.e., not to fill scripts). In the 12 months prior to the interview
 Visit chiropractor(s) Self-reports of consulting a chiropractor. In the 12 months prior to the interview
  1. aAll musculoskeletal-related healthcare, pain and medicines use data were collected only for NHS respondents with current arthritis or osteoporosis (osteoporosis, osteopenia or gout, rheumatism or arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other type (specified))