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Table 4 Associations of predictors with follow-up disability, using multiple regression analysis

From: Psychological risk and protective factors for disability in chronic low back pain – a longitudinal analysis in primary care

Explanatory Variables β 95% CI βStand p – value (β) Cohen’s f 2
Baseline disability 0.34 0.25, 0.44 0.33 < .001* 0.126
Age 0.41 0.26, 0.55 0.23 < .001* 0.075
Somatization 9.71 4.76, 14.67 0.19 < .001* 0.039
Depression 0.83 0.01, 1.64 0.10 .046 0.011
Time since onset of pain 1.19 −0.21, 2.59 0.07 .096 0.007
Coping resources – 0.58 – 1.64, 1.64 – 0.05 .280 0.003
Resilience – 0.83 – 2.96, 1.31 – 0.04 .446 0.002
Gender 0.64 – 3.47, 4.76 0.01 .759 <0.001
AIC 3766.12     
R 2 0.35     
  1. β = regression coefficient; βstand = standardized regression coefficient; CI confidence interval
  2. Cohen’s f 2: 0.02 = small effect size, 0.15 = medium effect size, 0.35 = large effect size
  3. *p < Bonferroni-Holm adjusted α (1st test: α = 0.05/8 = 0.006, 2nd test: α = 0.05/7 = 0.007; 3rd test: α = 0.05/6 = 0.008…)