Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Psychological risk and protective factors for disability in chronic low back pain – a longitudinal analysis in primary care

Characteristics Final sample (n = 423) Missing n (%)
Female gender, n (%) 244 (57.7) 0
Age in years, mean (SD) 56.6 (14.1) 0
German nationality, n (%) 408 (96.5) 12 (2.8)
Marital status, n (%)   1 (0.2)
 Single 24 (5.7)  
 unmarried with partner 23 (5.4)  
 married 293 (69.3)  
 divorced or separated 47 (11.1)  
 widowed 35 (8.3)  
Education graduation in years, n (%)   2 (0.5)
 9 years 216 (51.1)  
 10 years 130 (30.7)  
 12–13 years 64 (15.1)  
 Other 10 (2.4)  
 No graduation 1 (0.2)  
Currently working (employed), n (%) 228 (53.9) 1 (0.2)
 Amount of them currently on sick leave, n (%) 79 (34.6) 4 (1.8)
 Days on sick leave in the past 3 months, mean (SD) 10.98 (21.58) 21 (9.2)
Reason for not working, n (%)   2 (1.0)
 unemployed 16 (8.2)  
 pupil/student 1 (0.5)  
 housewife 30 (15.5)  
 disability pension 16 (8.2)  
 retirement pension 121 (62.4)  
 other type of pension 8 (4.1)  
Number of pain areas at baseline, mean (SD) 3.08 (1.60) 0 (0)
Time since onset of back pain, n (%)   0 (0)
  < 1 year 58 (13.7)  
 1 to 2 years 37 (8.7)  
 2 to 5 years 57 (13.5)  
 5 to 10 years 58 (13.7)  
  > 10 years 213 (50.4)  
Chronic pain grade (Von-Korff), n (%)   32 (7.6)
 Grade 1 62 (14.7)  
 Grade 2 102 (24.1)  
 Grade 3 112 (26.5)  
 Grade 4 115 (27.2)  
Korff-disability score (Range 0–100), mean (SD) 49.4 (23.8) 8 (1.9)
Depression (HADS, Range 0–21), mean (SD) 8.00 (3.11) 6 (1.4)
Clinically relevant depression, (HADS > 10), n (%) 94 (22.2)  
Somatization (SCL-90-R, Range 0–4), mean (SD) 0.83 (0.48) 14 (3.3)
Resilience (RS11, Range 1–7), mean (SD) 5.30 (1.16) 25 (5.9)
Coping resources (CRBPQ, Range 0–10), mean (SD) 5.86 (2.12) 17 (4.0)
  1. SD Standard Deviation, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, SCL-90-R Symptom Checklist-90-R, RS11 Resilience Scale, CRBPQ Coping Resources for Back Pain Questionnaire