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Table 4 Classes of prescription medications given at discharge to patients for LBP (n = 325)a

From: Current management practices for patients presenting with low back pain to a large emergency department in Canada

Medication class Frequent medication Number (%)
Opioid   125 (38.5)
  Hydromorphone 63 (19.4)
  Acetaminophen and codeine (Tylenol 3)b 47 (14.5)
Anti-inflammatory   66 (20.3)
  Ibuprofen 38 (11.7)
  Naproxen 25 (7.7)
Analgesic   77 (23.7)
  Acetaminophen 20 (6.2)
Muscle Relaxant   26 (8.0)
Combination of Medicationsc   
Opioid and Anti-inflammatory   29 (8.9)
Opioid and Analgesic   64 (19.7)
Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic   17 (5.2)
  1. aFrequent medications delivered within selected classes are also presented (>4.5%)
  2. bMedications of dual-action (e.g. Tylenol 3) were counted in both medication classes (e.g. opioid and analgesic
  3. cCombination of medications were separately prescribed drugs