Skip to main content

Table 1 Changes in musculoskeletal disorders age-standardized mortality rate per million person-years 1986–2011, stratified by sex

From: Musculoskeletal disorders as underlying cause of death in 58 countries, 1986–2011: trend analysis of WHO mortality database

Country/region Men Women
Mortality rate % ∆ Annual change, % Mortality rate % ∆ Annual change, %
1986 2001 2011 1986 to 2011 2001 to 2011 1986 − 2011 2001 − 2011 1986 2001 2011 1986 to 2011 2001 to 2011 1986 − 2011 2001 − 2011
All countries (n = 58) 17.2 18.9 18.1 5.3 −3.9 0.2 −0.3* 26.6 27.8 25.1 −5.6 −9.8 −0.3 −1.2*
Asia (n = 7) 14.7 16.9 16.0 8.9 −5.1 0.5 −0.1 26.6 24.7 19.0 −28.6 −23.0 −1.3* −2.9*
 Hong Kong SAR 2.6 16.0 10.6 309.0 −33.8 7.8* −2.5 19.9 15.5 11.9 −39.9 −23.3 −1.1 −2.3*
 Israel 8.0 18.2 26.1 224.3 43.1 5.3* 0.8 17.7 20.0 27.1 53.1 35.8 2.0* 0.9
 Japan 12.8 14.2 14.9 16.0 4.4 0.7 0.8 28.2 20.5 17.3 −38.7 −15.9 −2.1* −1.8*
 Kazakhstan 12.5 10.4 7.4 −41.1 −29.2 −2.6* −3.7* 13.8 12.4 15.7 14.0 26.7 0.3 1.9
 Kyrgyzstan 7.2 14.0 23.6 228.0 68.8 3.3 4.2 11.9 15.1 32.7 173.8 116.5 4.0* 3.8
 Republic of Korea 31.8 39.7 24.3 −23.7 −38.8 −0.3 −4.1* 26.5 60.7 27.3 2.9 −55.1 1.1 −8.7*
 Singapore 8.9 5.0 7.5 −15.4 49.5 −0.7 2.5 27.7 12.4 6.5 −76.5 −47.2 −5.1* −3.2
Eastern Europe (n = 8) 9.4 8.9 7.2 −23.4 −18.6 −1.0* −1.9* 14.2 13.5 10.5 −26.5 −22.8 −1.3* −2.7*
 Bulgaria 2.4 4.2 5.4 121.2 28.0 1.3 0.7 3.2 2.3 5.6 74.7 143.2 1.0 5.8
 Czech Republic 5.3 2.6 8.2 54.4 214.7 1.1 15.0* 8.5 3.4 7.8 −9.0 126.9 −1.3 10.1*
 Hungary 13.4 14.0 19.3 43.6 37.6 1.9* 4.2* 27.3 21.8 25.1 −8.1 15.0 −0.1 2.0
 Poland 13.2 6.3 5.1 −61.5 −20.0 −3.8* −2.4 25.9 14.3 11.5 −55.7 −19.7 −3.5* −3.1*
 Republic of Moldova 12.8 8.4 8.5 −33.8 1.2 −1.9* −0.2 12.4 12.9 5.5 −55.2 −57.0 −3.6* −9.9*
 Romania 5.7 1.3 0.9 −84.0 −27.3 −6.7* −4.4 9.5 2.5 2.3 −75.6 −7.9 −6.0* −1.2
 Russian Federation 9.6 10.2 7.4 −23.3 −27.6 −1.1* −2.8* 13.2 14.9 10.6 −19.8 −28.9 −0.8 −3.2*
 Ukraine 8.6 11.6 8.6 −0.8 −26.2 0.1 −2.8* 12.3 16.1 11.0 −10.8 −31.6 −0.5 −3.6*
Northern Europe (n = 11) 30.6 26.4 23.6 −23.0 −10.6 −1.0 −1.3* 51.6 39.2 30.4 −41.1 −22.5 −2.1* −2.8*
 Denmark 13.1 20.9 23.4 78.9 12.1 2.5 1.0 20.0 41.3 25.7 28.2 −37.9 0.8 −4.6*
 Estonia 13.9 14.2 13.6 −2.3 −4.3 0.0 −4.1 24.6 33.0 15.8 −35.8 −52.2 −1.2 −6.3*
 Finland 21.6 23.4 13.4 −38.0 −42.9 −2.0* −4.6* 45.4 31.5 21.3 −53.1 −32.4 −2.7* −4.7*
 Ireland 32.7 24.4 22.4 −31.3 −8.1 −1.8* −1.3 37.7 34.1 28.2 −25.2 −17.1 −1.7 −1.0
 Latvia 13.5 21.0 16.5 22.2 −21.3 1.9* −1.1 23.6 18.5 20.2 −14.5 9.5 −1.2* −1.4
 Lithuania 12.1 14.3 9.8 −19.1 −31.9 0.6 −1.0 28.1 18.2 19.3 −31.4 6.2 −1.7* −1.5
 Norway 23.5 22.1 22.0 −6.1 −0.5 −0.1 −1.1 35.6 32.9 24.9 −29.9 −24.1 −1.8* −3.6*
 Sweden 13.6 15.5 17.4 28.7 12.4 −0.1 −0.1 24.5 28.3 20.1 −18.2 −29.0 −0.7 −2.0*
 England & Wales 41.0 30.7 26.7 −35.0 −13.2 −1.9 −1.5* 65.9 44.2 35.4 −46.3 −20.1 −2.5* −2.7*
 Northern Ireland 11.8 20.7 23.1 95.8 11.3 3.1 1.0 21.5 41.5 33.7 56.6 −18.7 0.7 −1.7
 Scotland 19.3 22.6 24.2 25.2 7.2 0.8* −0.2 42.0 40.3 35.5 −15.4 −11.9 −0.5 −1.8*
Southern Europe (n = 6) 16.6 16.8 17.0 2.1 0.9 0.2 −0.8 25.0 24.5 22.8 −8.8 −6.8 −0.4 −1.4*
 Croatia 5.2 3.6 9.4 81.1 159.3 2.6* 5.9* 12.4 9.0 19.3 56.0 112.9 1.9* 8.1*
 Greece 1.5 17.8 20.9 1324.8 17.5 12.0* 2.0 6.1 15.9 20.4 232.9 28.6 4.1 1.1
 Italy 10.6 10.2 13.8 30.3 35.2 1.0 2.2 18.6 18.9 21.3 14.9 13.1 1.2 1.0
 Portugal 11.8 9.7 14.9 26.4 53.0 1.4* 3.1 13.2 17.0 13.4 2.2 −21.0 0.0 −2.2
 Slovenia 6.4 9.3 15.8 148.4 70.4 2.7* 5.3 18.8 10.5 24.8 32.5 136.2 2.0* 2.1
 Spain 32.5 29.3 21.2 −34.6 −27.5 −1.8* −3.5* 44.3 38.9 27.8 −37.2 −28.4 −1.9* −4.0*
Western Europe (n = 6) 19.1 19.0 16.6 −12.7 −12.6 −0.8 −1.1* 25.5 21.0 19.0 −25.4 −9.6 −1.3* −1.2*
 Austria 8.5 6.4 9.6 12.1 49.5 −0.3 0.7 17.5 8.5 14.8 −15.8 73.7 −0.5 2.5
 Belgium 9.5 19.4 16.7 76.3 −14.0 2.5* −1.9 15.3 23.1 18.7 22.3 −19.1 1.0 −2.3*
 France 23.8 29.1 20.4 −14.4 −29.9 −1.7 −3.1* 28.7 29.4 21.5 −25.2 −27.0 −1.3* −3.6*
 Germany 16.4 9.9 13.5 −17.7 35.6 −1.2* 3.4* 23.2 12.5 15.7 −32.5 25.3 −1.7* 2.7*
 Netherlands 24.5 25.3 19.0 −22.5 −25.0 −1.4* −2.9* 37.7 37.1 25.2 −33.2 −32.0 −2.1* −3.7*
 Switzerland 24.5 24.5 19.7 −19.4 −19.6 −0.0 −3.2* 27.7 33.4 29.1 4.9 −13.0 −0.2 −2.7*
Caribbean (n = 4) 11.7 17.6 18.5 58.0 5.1 1.9* 2.1 22.7 28.3 31.1 37.1 9.7 1.1* 1.2
 Cuba 13.5 18.8 23.4 73.8 24.2 2.7* 3.8 28.1 32.3 38.7 37.6 19.9 0.8 3.0
 Dominican Republic 8.4 5.4 3.0 −64.2 −44.2 −2.5 −5.6 9.3 8.6 7.1 −23.6 −17.9 0.3 −0.8
 Puerto Rico 5.7 25.8 22.7 295.5 −12.0 5.7* 1.2 13.2 33.5 35.0 164.5 4.6 3.5* 1.2
 Trinidad and Tobago 54.6 43.4 44.7 −18.1 3.0 −1.3 0.7 81.8 65.9 75.0 −8.3 13.8 −0.1 −0.2
Central America (n = 4) 47.3 26.9 33.9 −28.4 26.1 −1.1 4.1* 61.8 45.1 52.7 −14.8 16.9 −0.4 2.9*
 Costa Rica 15.4 19.7 31.6 104.9 60.3 2.7 6.4* 47.9 35.7 52.5 9.6 47.1 0.2 5.2*
 Guatemala 68.7 28.2 18.8 −72.6 −33.1 −5.6* −4.6* 48.0 21.4 26.2 −45.3 22.8 −2.5 1.0
 Mexico 46.6 27.7 36.4 −21.9 31.5 −0.7 4.7* 63.7 48.2 56.4 −11.5 17.0 −0.2 3.0*
 Panama 42.0 5.7 5.9 −85.9 3.2 −4.0* 4.3 37.1 25.2 16.0 −57.0 −36.7 −1.8* −0.2
South America (n = 8) 12.8 16.6 19.7 53.9 19.2 1.6* 2.1* 22.2 26.1 31.1 40.5 19.4 1.3* 2.1*
 Argentina 11.0 8.2 13.0 18.2 58.7 0.6 3.9* 18.5 17.7 22.8 22.7 28.2 0.5 2.6*
 Brazil 9.3 18.0 20.4 119.7 13.1 3.3* 1.6* 16.6 23.0 28.6 72.8 24.7 2.8* 2.6*
 Chile 9.1 17.0 15.1 65.6 −11.3 1.6* −1.7 31.5 37.2 31.4 −0.3 −15.6 −0.2 −2.0*
 Colombia 25.4 27.8 43.0 69.1 54.4 1.7 4.7* 35.2 45.3 69.3 96.8 53.2 2.8* 4.8*
 Ecuador 31.1 7.4 11.6 −62.6 56.3 −3.5 3.4 55.2 20.1 25.2 −54.4 25.2 −2.6 5.8*
 Peru 6.0 12.9 8.9 47.4 −31.6 −2.1* −4.4 16.5 22.0 16.5 0.3 −24.9 −1.5 −4.1
 Uruguay 11.0 18.9 24.7 124.5 31.2 3.0* 3.9 18.3 31.7 38.5 110.7 21.6 2.9* 3.0*
 Venezuela 22.9 16.5 10.3 −54.8 −37.5 −2.8* −4.6* 38.1 42.8 30.4 −20.1 −28.9 −1.0 −3.7*
North America (n = 2) 14.0 22.6 20.0 42.4 −11.4 1.3* −1.5* 24.1 38.1 30.2 25.1 −20.7 0.9* −2.6*
 Canada 18.2 20.9 18.7 2.5 −10.7 0.2 −1.3* 26.4 34.1 28.5 7.9 −16.3 0.1 −2.9*
 USA 13.7 22.8 20.1 47.5 −11.5 1.4* −1.6* 24.0 38.6 30.4 26.5 −21.3 0.9* −2.6*
Oceania (n = 2) 25.2 24.0 21.0 −16.4 −12.3 −1.1 −1.9* 33.1 34.3 31.1 −6.0 −9.2 −0.2 −1.3*
 Australia 24.3 22.6 20.3 −16.3 −10.1 −0.6* −1.8* 31.2 32.6 29.7 −4.7 −8.8 −0.3* −1.2*
 New Zealand 29.3 30.9 24.8 −15.4 −19.8 0.0 −2.3* 42.4 42.6 38.5 −9.0 −9.6 0.4 −1.9*
  1. *Average annual percent change is statistically significantly different from zero (P < 0.05)