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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Accuracy of clinical neurological examination in diagnosing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy: a systematic literature review

Author (year) Country Sample size (gender, age) Setting (period of recruitment) Patients’ description Examiners Index tests
Iversen et al. (2013) Norway N = 116 Male = 68 Female = 48 Mean age = 42 Out-patient multi-disciplinary back clinics History & clinical presentation suggestive of chronic lumbar radiculopathy Orthopaedic manual physiotherapists and neurologists FNS, SLR, sensory, motor, knee reflex, ankle reflex
Suri et al. (2011) [21] USA N = 54 Male =28 Female = 26 Mean age = 54 Hospital spine centre (January 2008 – March 2009) Lower extremity radiating pain of Physiatrists specialized in spine care SLR, Crossed SLR, FNST, sensory, motor, patella & Achilles reflexes
Trainor & Pinnington (2011) [16] UK N = 16 Male =7 Female = 9 Mean age = 49 Orthopedic spinal clinic (6 months) Pain radiating into one or both legs distal to the groin or gluteal fold Distribution of pain in dermatomal pattern Physiotherapists Slump knee bend test
Coster et al. (2010) [7] Netherlands N = 202 Male =92 Female = 110 Mean age = 46 Neurology department (January 2006 – March 2007) Subjects referred by general practitioners with clinical suspicion of Lumbo-Sacral Radicular Syndrome (LSRS) Neuro-physiologist Sensory, motor, reflex and SLR test
Suri et al. (2010) [15] USA N = 51 (independent group) Male =40 Female = 11 Mean age = 54 Hospital spine centre (January 2008 – March 2009) Patients presenting with lower extremity radiating pain and MRI-visible lumbar disk herniation. Physiatrists specialized in spine care Sensory (soft touch & pin prick), motor (heel raise & sit-to-stand), reflex and neural provocation
Bertilson et al. (2010) [14] Sweden N = 61 Male =12 Female = 49 Mean age = 60 Radiology clinic (February - September 2004) Patients referred for lumbar spine MRI Orthopaedic surgeon & certified radiologist Sensory (soft touch & pain prick), motor (hypotrophy), tendon reflex, tender point palpation
Lee-Robinson (2010) [2] USA N = 70 Male =31 Female = 39 Mean age = 65 Electro-diagnosis, physical medicine & rehabilitation clinic (January to October 2009) Patients with low back pain and radicular lower extremity symptoms of weakness, numbness, and pain and abnormal lumbar MRI findings Physician (specialist in electro-diagnostics & physical medicine & rehab) Ankle reflex, pin wheel examination, motor testing
Majlesi (2008) [20] Turkey N = 180 Male = Female = Mean age = Neuro-surgery department (January – June 2005) Patients with complaints suggestive of lumbar disc herniation with low back, leg, or low back and leg pain Neuro-surgeons Slump and SLR tests
Rabin (2007) [19] USA N = 38 (MRI +) Male =30 Female = 8 Mean age = 38 Neuro- and orthopedic surgery clinic Low back pain or paraesthesia radiationg below the knee Unclear Seated SLRT and supine SLRT
Vroomen et al. (2002) [10] Netherlands N = 58 (MRI +) Male = ? Female = ? Mean age = ? Neurology department Patients referred to the neurology department with a new episode of pain radiating into the leg below the gluteal fold. Neuro-radiologist Paresis, finger floor distance, tendon reflexes, sensory,
Haldeman (1998) [18] USA N = 100 Male = ? Female = ? Mean age = ? Neurology and surgery Patients with complaints of low-back pain and leg pain, consistent with a diagnosis of sciatica Certified neuro-radiologist and orthopaedic surgeon SLRT, motor, sensory, reflex
Albeck (1996) [13] Denmark N = 80 Male =48 Female = 32 Mean age = 40 Neuro-surgery clinic Mono-radicular pain from L5 or S1 Neuro-surgeon sensory, motor, tendon reflexes