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Table 1 The general characteristic for the included studies, 1 VAS with rest at 12 h, 2 VAS with rest at 24 h, 3 VAS with rest at 48 h, 4, VAS with rest at 72 h, 5, VAS with mobilization at 12 h, 6, VAS with mobilization at 24 h, 7, VAS with mobilization at 48 h, 8, VAS with mobilization at 72 h; 9, length of hospital stay; 10, morphine consumption at 24 h; 11, morphine consumption at 48 h; 12, the occurrence of infection; 13, nausea, 14; postoperative nausea and vomiting; 15, range of motion; 16, total morphine consumption

From: Local anesthetic infusion pump for pain management following total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

Reference No. of patients Male, % Mean age, year Intervention Outcomes Study design Follow up
CLIA C CLIA C
Nechleba 2005 [15] 14 16 63.3 65 200 cc 0.25% bupivacaine at 4.16 cc 200 cc Saline 2 3 11 12 RCT 6 week
Reeves 2009 [16] 31 30 41 69 240 cc 0.2% ropivacaine or 0.375% ropivacaine at 5 cc/h 240 cc Saline 2 3 6 7 8 11 RCT 2 day
Gomez-Cardero 2011 25 25 38 71 300 cc 0.2% ropivacaine at a speed of 5 cc/h 300 cc Saline 12 RCT 1 month
Zhang 2011 [12] 27 26 47.2 67 199 cc 2 mg/ml ropivacaine plus 2 ml 2 mg/ml ketorolac at 4 cc/h 199 cc saline 1 2 3 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 14 RCT 3 month
Goyal 2013 [10] 75 75 45.3 63 300 cc 0.5% bupivacaine 300 cc Saline 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 RCT 6 week
Williams 2013 [11] 26 25 41.2 67 0.5% bupivacaine at 2 cc/h Saline 2, 3 9 13 9 10 14 RCT 1 y
Ali 2015 [18] 97 95 36.5 69 100 cc 7.5 mg/ml ropivacaine at 2 cc/h 100 cc Saline 2 3 4 7 10 11 12 13 RCT 3 m