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Table 2 Association of change in serum cytokine and neurotransmitter levels from baseline to 2-months with pain responder status on WOMAC pain at 2-month post-injection in painful TKA

From: Cytokine and neuropeptide levels are associated with pain relief in patients with chronically painful total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study

  WOMAC Pain Responder* N Mean Change (FU-Baseline) Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean P-value
Interleukin (IL)-7 No 23 0.084 0.91 0.19 0.01
Yes 12 1.07 1.17 0.34  
IL-10 No 23 8.51 20.90 4.36 0.01
Yes 12 27.72 21.56 6.22  
IL-12 p70 No 23 3.36 8.17 1.70 0.004
Yes 12 12.91 9.60 2.77  
Eotaxin No 23 −2.03 13.92 2.90 0.046
Yes 12 7.85 12.28 3.54  
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) No 23 −1.24 23.18 4.83 0.03
Yes 12 15.61 13.35 3.85  
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) No 23 4.46 21.32 4.44 0.03
Yes 12 22.22 24.65 7.12  
IL-4 No 23 −0.02 0.16 0.03 0.12
Yes 12 0.06 0.12 0.03  
IL-6 No 23 −15.90 275.66 57.48 0.09
Yes 12 137.35 182.09 52.56  
IL-13 No 23 4.90 13.25 2.76 0.15
Yes 12 12.18 14.87 4.29  
IL-15 No 23 0.31 11.87 2.47 0.09
Yes 12 7.36 10.52 3.038  
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta (mip1b) No 23 5.55 91.43 19.06 0.16
Yes 12 53.35 96.39 27.82  
Substance P No 14 0.08 1.11 0.298 0.32
Yes 5 −0.46 0.61 0.273  
  1. Only those associations that either had a significant p-value or a p-value <0.33 are listed; The levels of other cytokine did not differ significantly between pain responders and pain non-responders (IL-1 beta, IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-5, IL-8, IL-9, IL-17, Basic FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha, PDGF, RANTES, and VEGF). Significant p-values <0.05 are in bold
  2. Positive changes mean that at the 2-month follow-up time, the levels were higher than the baseline and a negative sign means follow-up levels were lower
  3. WOMAC Pain Responder* is defined as reduction in WOMAC pain subscale of 20 or more 0–100 scale