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Table 1 Intervention targets selective contributors to racial disparities in pain

From: Taking ACTION to reduce pain: ACTION study rationale, design and protocol of a randomized trial of a proactive telephone-based coaching intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain among African Americans

Barriers Element of Intervention that targets barrier
Healthcare system barriers associated with access and utilization Addressed by proactive telephone outreach
Barriers associated with provider communication MI approaches used by counselors
Environmental barriers to exercise Action planning and MI approaches; Coping, Supportive/facilitative, and collaborative planning
Psychological Barriers (including self-efficacy) Action planning and MI