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Table 3 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Genes associated with persistent lumbar radicular pain; a systematic review

Study Cases Pain local. Pain time points Gene Biomarker Results
Andrade et al. (2013) [39] n = 10 Leg 1 day preoperative
6 weeks postoperative
12 month postoperative
  (Tissue: PM, AF, NP)
IL-1beta,
IL-6

Andrade et al. (2011) [38] n = 10 Leg 1 day preoperative
6 week postopertive
12 mont postoperative
  (Tissue: PM, AF, NP)
TNF alfa
TNF R1
TNF R2
↑ (6 week r = 0.54, 12 month r = 0.65)
↑ (6 week r = 0.75, 12 month r = 0.80)
↓ (6 week r = -0.60, 12 month r = -0.60)
Gebhardt et al. (2006) [37] n = 31 ND 0 day, 3 day, 7 day, 10 day, 14 day, 17 day, 21 day, 2,3 month, 6 month   (Blood)
hsCRP
↓ (first 3 weeks p < 0.05)
- (after 3 weeks)
Hasvik et al. (2014) [21] n = 118 Leg Baseline
12 month
OPRM1   ↑ (Women p < 0.008)
↓ (Men p < 0.008)
Jacobsen et al. (2013) [44] n = 260 Leg
Back
Baseline
6 week
12 month
MMP1   ↑ (6 week p = 0.004, 12 month p = 0.004)
Jacobsen et al. (2012) [43] n = 258 ND
Activity
Baseline
6 month postoperative
12 month postoperative
COMT   ↑ (6 month p = 0.028)
Karppinen et al. (2008) [29] n = 153 Leg
Back
Baseline
6 week
6 month
12 month
IL-6  
Moen et al. (2014) [31] n = 252 Activity Baseline
6 week
6 month
12 month
1 L-1a + IL-1RN
IL-1b + IL-1RN
  ↑ (12 month p = 0.049)
Olsen et al. (2012) [20] n = 258 Leg
Back
Activity
Baseline
6 week
6 month
12 month
OPRM1   ↑ (12 month Women p = 0.002)
↓ (12 month Men p = 0.002)
Rut et al. (2014) [40] n = 176 Leg
Back
Preoperative
12 month postoperative
COMT   ↑ (12 month p = 0.0042)
Schistad et al. (2014) [42] n = 108 Leg
Back
Activity
Rest
Baseline
12 month
  (Blood)
IL-6
↑ (12 month p = 0.004)
Schistad et al. (2014) [30] n = 121 Leg
Back
Activity
Rest
Present
Baseline
6 week
12 month
IL-1a   ↑ (12 month p = 0.002)
Scuderi et al. (2009) [45] n = 47 ND Preinjection
3 month postinjection
  (CSF)
IFNa
IL2,4,5,6,7,8,10,12,13,17
G-CSF
GM-CSF
TNFa
IL1b
MCP-1b
MIP-1b
↓ (3 month p = 0.001)






Takeuchi et al. (2007) [41] n = 27 Leg Preoperative
3 week postoperative
  (Blood)
CGRP1
Galanin
Neuro-peptide4
SubstP
↑ (Preoperative p = 0.01)


Tegeder et al. (2006) [24] n = 168 ND 4 time pointsa GCH   ↓ (p < 0,05)
  1. ↑ (positive association with poor recovery), ↓ (negative association with poor recovery), - (no association with poor recovery), ND (not defined, a(z-score). All pain measures reported by VAS except Tegeder et al. PM (Paravertebral muscle), AF (Annulus fibrosis), NP (Nucleus pulposus)