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Table 3 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Genes associated with persistent lumbar radicular pain; a systematic review

Study Cases Pain local. Pain time points Gene Biomarker Results
Andrade et al. (2013) [39] n = 10 Leg 1 day preoperative 6 weeks postoperative 12 month postoperative   (Tissue: PM, AF, NP) IL-1beta, IL-6 – –
Andrade et al. (2011) [38] n = 10 Leg 1 day preoperative 6 week postopertive 12 mont postoperative   (Tissue: PM, AF, NP) TNF alfa TNF R1 TNF R2 ↑ (6 week r = 0.54, 12 month r = 0.65) ↑ (6 week r = 0.75, 12 month r = 0.80) ↓ (6 week r = -0.60, 12 month r = -0.60)
Gebhardt et al. (2006) [37] n = 31 ND 0 day, 3 day, 7 day, 10 day, 14 day, 17 day, 21 day, 2,3 month, 6 month   (Blood) hsCRP ↓ (first 3 weeks p < 0.05) - (after 3 weeks)
Hasvik et al. (2014) [21] n = 118 Leg Baseline 12 month OPRM1   ↑ (Women p < 0.008) ↓ (Men p < 0.008)
Jacobsen et al. (2013) [44] n = 260 Leg Back Baseline 6 week 12 month MMP1   ↑ (6 week p = 0.004, 12 month p = 0.004)
Jacobsen et al. (2012) [43] n = 258 ND Activity Baseline 6 month postoperative 12 month postoperative COMT   ↑ (6 month p = 0.028)
Karppinen et al. (2008) [29] n = 153 Leg Back Baseline 6 week 6 month 12 month IL-6  
Moen et al. (2014) [31] n = 252 Activity Baseline 6 week 6 month 12 month 1 L-1a + IL-1RN IL-1b + IL-1RN   ↑ (12 month p = 0.049) –
Olsen et al. (2012) [20] n = 258 Leg Back Activity Baseline 6 week 6 month 12 month OPRM1   ↑ (12 month Women p = 0.002) ↓ (12 month Men p = 0.002)
Rut et al. (2014) [40] n = 176 Leg Back Preoperative 12 month postoperative COMT   ↑ (12 month p = 0.0042)
Schistad et al. (2014) [42] n = 108 Leg Back Activity Rest Baseline 12 month   (Blood) IL-6 ↑ (12 month p = 0.004)
Schistad et al. (2014) [30] n = 121 Leg Back Activity Rest Present Baseline 6 week 12 month IL-1a   ↑ (12 month p = 0.002)
Scuderi et al. (2009) [45] n = 47 ND Preinjection 3 month postinjection   (CSF) IFNa IL2,4,5,6,7,8,10,12,13,17 G-CSF GM-CSF TNFa IL1b MCP-1b MIP-1b ↓ (3 month p = 0.001) – – – – – – –
Takeuchi et al. (2007) [41] n = 27 Leg Preoperative 3 week postoperative   (Blood) CGRP1 Galanin Neuro-peptide4 SubstP ↑ (Preoperative p = 0.01) – – –
Tegeder et al. (2006) [24] n = 168 ND 4 time pointsa GCH   ↓ (p < 0,05)
  1. ↑ (positive association with poor recovery), ↓ (negative association with poor recovery), - (no association with poor recovery), ND (not defined, a(z-score). All pain measures reported by VAS except Tegeder et al. PM (Paravertebral muscle), AF (Annulus fibrosis), NP (Nucleus pulposus)