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Table 3 Comparison of fracture characteristics and healthcare resource utilization between groups (follow-up period; raloxifene subgroup)

From: Fracture risk and healthcare resource utilization and costs among osteoporosis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus in Japan: retrospective analysis of a hospital claims database

  Unadjusted Matched
Characteristic All (N = 1367) T2DM (N = 668) Non-DM (N = 699) P value All (N = 478) T2DM (N = 239) Non-DM (N = 239) P value
Fractures
 Patients with clinical fracturesa, n (%) 189 (13.8) 96 (14.4) 93 (13.3) 0.568 61 (12.8) 29 (12.1) 32 (13.4) 0.681
 Number of days to first fracture, mean (SD) 440.8 (258.9) 398.2 (250.9) 484.8 (261) 0.499b 423.7 (248.7) 381.9 (244) 461.6 (250.6) 0.717b
 Patients with non-vertebral fractures, n (%) 148 (10.8) 79 (11.8) 69 (9.9) 0.245 51 (10.7) 24 (10.0) 27 (11.3) 0.657
Resource utilization
 BMD test, n (%) 634 (46.4) 239 (35.8) 395 (56.5) <0.001 232 (48.5) 96 (40.2) 136 (56.9) <0.001
 Bone formation test, n (%) 86 (6.3) 35 (5.2) 51 (7.3) 0.117 29 (6.1) 14 (5.9) 15 (6.3) 0.848
 Bone resorption test, n (%) 157 (11.5) 60 (9.0) 97 (13.9) 0.005 54 (11.3) 26 (10.9) 28 (11.7) 0.773
 Osteoporosis-related testsc (post-baseline), n (%) 1029 (75.3) 488 (73.1) 541 (77.4) 0.063 364 (76.2) 178 (74.5) 186 (77.8) 0.391
 Osteoporosis-related testsc (post-baseline), mean per patient (SD) 2.863 (3.031) 2.867 (3.157) 2.86 (2.909) 0.966 2.747 (2.698) 2.816 (2.745) 2.678 (2.654) 0.576
 Hospital admissions, n (%) 383 (28.0) 243 (36.4) 140 (20.0) <0.001 129 (27.0) 79 (33.1) 50 (20.9) 0.003
 Hospital admissions, mean per patient (SD) 0.49 (1.053) 0.668 (1.246) 0.32 (0.791) <0.001 0.416 (0.849) 0.49 (0.839) 0.343 (0.855) 0.059
 Days in hospital, mean (SD) 9.306 (29.13) 12.69 (35.26) 6.076 (21.23) <0.001 8.073 (30.44) 9.586 (34.95) 6.561 (25.13) 0.278
 Outpatient visits, n (%) 1367 (100.0) 668 (100.0) 699 (100.0) - 478 (100.0) 239 (100.0) 239 (100.0) -
 Outpatient visits, mean per patient (SD) 32.72 (38.37) 38.61 (39.44) 27.09 (36.47) <0.001 30.59 (34.09) 31.84 (23.96) 29.34 (41.85) 0.424
 Laboratory tests, n (%) 268 (19.6) 162 (24.3) 106 (15.2) <0.001 88 (18.4) 55 (23.0) 33 (13.8) 0.009
 Laboratory tests, mean per patient (SD) 37.93 (127.3) 50.91 (151.9) 25.53 (96.77) <0.001 27.54 (79.15) 36.03 (91.74) 19.05 (63.21) 0.019
 Total cost in JPY, mean (SD) 750,000 (1,560,000) 1,010,000 (1,800,000) 500,000 (1,230,000) <0.001 589,000 (1,170,000) 665,000 (980,000) 513,000 (1,340,000) 0.158
 Total cost in JPY, median 240,000 396,000 144,000   215,000 314,000 150,000 <0.001d
  1. Abbreviations: BMD bone mineral density, DM diabetes mellitus, JPY Japanese Yen, SD standard deviation, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. aClinical fractures include vertebral and non-vertebral fractures
  3. bP value from Log Rank test
  4. cOsteoporosis-related tests include bone formation tests, bone resorption tests, imaging tests, and bone mineral density measurements
  5. dP value from Wilcoxon Rank Sum test