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Table 1 Age, fracture and clinical characteristics, and healthcare resource utilization at baseline

From: Fracture risk and healthcare resource utilization and costs among osteoporosis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus in Japan: retrospective analysis of a hospital claims database

  Overall Raloxifene subgroup
Characteristic All (N = 15,559) T2DM (N = 7580) Non-DM (N = 7979) P value All (N = 1367) T2DM (N = 668) Non-DM (N = 699) P value
Age in years, mean (SD) 73.1 (9.10) 73.4 (8.99) 72.9 (9.19) <0.001 73.7 (9.08) 74.9 (8.45) 72.6 (9.53) <0.001
Age, n (%)     <0.001     <0.001
 50–54 years 439 (2.8) 203 (2.7) 236 (3.0)   35 (2.6) 8 (1.2) 27 (3.9)  
 55–59 years 896 (5.8) 413 (5.4) 483 (6.1)   62 (4.5) 22 (3.3) 40 (5.7)  
 60–64 years 1515 (9.7) 679 (9.0) 836 (10.5)   114 (8.3) 40 (6.0) 74 (10.6)  
 65–69 years 2309 (14.8) 1064 (14.0) 1245 (15.6)   229 (16.8) 103 (15.4) 126 (18.0)  
 70–74 years 2967 (19.1) 1504 (19.8) 1463 (18.3)   264 (19.3) 144 (21.6) 120 (17.2)  
 75–79 years 3406 (21.9) 1695 (22.4) 1711 (21.4)   280 (20.5) 145 (21.7) 135 (19.3)  
 80 years and older 4027 (25.9) 2022 (26.7) 2005 (25.1)   383 (28.0) 206 (30.8) 177 (25.3)  
Fractures, n (%)
 Patients with clinical fracturesa 810 (5.2) 405 (5.3) 405 (5.1) 0.453 76 (5.6) 45 (6.7) 31 (4.4) 0.063
 Patients with non-vertebral fractures 542 (3.5) 275 (3.6) 267 (3.3) 0.338 62 (4.5) 33 (4.9) 29 (4.1) 0.482
Charlson Comorbidity Index, mean (SD) 2.15 (2.28) 2.76 (2.37) 1.58 (2.03) <0.001 1.70 (1.87) 2.30 (1.99) 1.13 (1.55) <0.001
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Dyslipidemia 5329 (34.3) 3671 (48.4) 1658 (20.8) <0.001 429 (31.4) 323 (48.4) 106 (15.2) <0.001
 Arteriosclerosis 1487 (9.6) 935 (12.3) 552 (6.9) <0.001 112 (8.2) 75 (11.2) 37 (5.3) <0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease 1926 (12.4) 1178 (15.5) 748 (9.4) <0.001 164 (12.0) 96 (14.4) 68 (9.7) 0.008
 Thyroid disease 1702 (10.9) 1120 (14.8) 582 (7.3) <0.001 138 (10.1) 93 (13.9) 45 (6.4) <0.001
 Liver disease 2817 (18.1) 1914 (25.3) 903 (11.3) <0.001 212 (15.5) 155 (23.2) 57 (8.2) <0.001
 Chronic kidney disease 823 (5.3) 647 (8.5) 176 (2.2) <0.001 57 (4.2) 49 (7.3) 8 (1.1) <0.001
 Type 2 diabetes 4580 (29.4) 4580 (60.4) - <0.001 357 (26.1) 357 (53.4) - <0.001
Osteoporosis medications initiated, n (%)
 Bisphosphonates 8913 (57.3) 4140 (54.6) 4773 (59.8) <0.001 47 (3.4) 18 (2.7) 29 (4.1) 0.140
 SERMs 1373 (8.8) 670 (8.8) 703 (8.8) 0.950 1367 (100.0) 668 (100.0) 699 (100.0) -
 Active vitamin Db 6155 (39.6) 3101 (40.9) 3054 (38.3) <0.001 385 (28.2) 167 (25.0) 218 (31.2) 0.011
 Calcitonin 4 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 0.343c - - -  
 Raloxifene without alendronate 1339 (8.6) 660 (8.7) 679 (8.5) 0.661 1339 (98.0) 660 (98.8) 679 (97.1) 0.030
 Raloxifene and alendronate in combination 28 (0.2) 8 (0.1) 20 (0.3) 0.033 28 (2.0) 8 (1.2) 20 (2.9) 0.030
 Alendronate without raloxifene 5363 (34.5) 2476 (32.7) 2887 (36.2) <0.001 - - - -
Other medications, n (%)
 Corticosteroid 3020 (19.4) 1910 (25.2) 1110 (13.9) <0.001 157 (11.5) 94 (14.1) 63 (9.0) 0.003
 Proton-pump inhibitor 3035 (19.5) 2018 (26.6) 1017 (12.7) <0.001 245 (17.9) 168 (25.1) 77 (11.0) <0.001
 Thyroid hormone 712 (4.6) 429 (5.7) 283 (3.5) <0.001 41 (3.0) 25 (3.7) 16 (2.3) 0.115
 Anticonvulsants 289 (1.9) 181 (2.4) 108 (1.4) <0.001 21 (1.5) 15 (2.2) 6 (0.9) 0.037
 Immunosuppressants 953 (6.1) 587 (7.7) 366 (4.6) <0.001 51 (3.7) 29 (4.3) 22 (3.1) 0.244
Diabetes medications, n (%)
 Insulin 365 (2.3) 365 (4.8) - <0.001 29 (2.1) 29 (4.3) - <0.001
 Metformin 249 (1.6) 249 (3.3) - <0.001 32 (2.3) 32 (4.8) - <0.001
 Sulfonylurea 467 (3.0) 467 (6.2) - <0.001 50 (3.7) 50 (7.5) - <0.001
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 472 (3.0) 472 (6.2) - <0.001 48 (3.5) 48 (7.2) - <0.001
 Thiazolidinedione 219 (1.4) 219 (2.9) - <0.001 25 (1.8) 25 (3.7) - <0.001
Resource utilization
 BMD test, n (%) 2251 (14.5) 913 (12.0) 1338 (16.8) <0.001 203 (14.9) 71 (10.6) 132 (18.9) <0.001
 Bone formation test, n (%) 112 (0.7) 61 (0.8) 51 (0.6) 0.222 8 (0.6) 5 (0.7) 3 (0.4) 0.439c
 Bone resorption test, n (%) 484 (3.1) 223 (2.9) 261 (3.3) 0.237 58 (4.2) 25 (3.7) 33 (4.7) 0.370
 Osteoporosis-related testsd (baseline), n (%) 3738 (24.0) 1752 (23.1) 1986 (24.9) 0.010 323 (23.6) 133 (19.9) 190 (27.2) 0.002
 Osteoporosis-related testsd (baseline), mean per patient (SD) 0.421 (0.980) 0.434 (1.041) 0.408 (0.918) 0.098 0.358 (0.823) 0.34 (0.859) 0.375 (0.788) 0.433
 Laboratory tests, n (%) 1975 (12.7) 1199 (15.8) 776 (9.7) <0.001 179 (13.1) 120 (18.0) 59 (8.4) <0.001
 Laboratory tests, mean per patient (SD) 8.983 (41.74) 13.02 (51.36) 5.144 (29.35) <0.001 7.734 (34.43) 11.66 (41.1) 3.986 (26) <0.001
 Hospital admissions, n (%) 1410 (9.1) 872 (11.5) 538 (6.7) <0.001 81 (5.9) 54 (8.1) 27 (3.9) <0.001
 Hospital admissions, mean per patient (SD) 0.117 (0.47) 0.147 (0.488) 0.088 (0.45) <0.001 0.071 (0.313) 0.099 (0.378) 0.044 (0.232) 0.001
 Days in hospital, mean (SD) 3.282 (21.65) 4.33 (27.37) 2.286 (14.15) <0.001 1.688 (9.911) 2.147 (11.16) 1.25 (8.537) 0.097
 Outpatient visits, n (%) 15,297 (98.3) 7437 (98.1) 7860 (98.5) 0.056 1353 (99.0) 660 (98.8) 693 (99.1) 0.533
 Outpatient visits, mean per patient (SD) 3.567 (8.038) 4.216 (8.932) 2.95 (7.03) <0.001 2.52 (3.836) 2.91 (4.524) 2.147 (2.992) <0.001
 Total cost in JPY, mean (SD) 122,000 (456,000) 160,000 (535,000) 85,215 (361,000) <0.001 60,494 (261,000) 81,248 (325,000) 40,661 (178,000) 0.005
 Total cost in JPY, median 13,983 18,675 10,783   9,565 13,066 6,654  
  1. Abbreviations: BMD bone mineral density, DM diabetes mellitus, JPY Japanese Yen, SD standard deviation, SERM selective estrogen receptor modulator, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. aClinical fractures include vertebral and non-vertebral fractures
  3. bActive vitamin D refers to calcitriol, alfacalcidol or eldecalcitol
  4. cChi-squared test may not be valid as more than 20% of the cells have fewer than 5 expected counts
  5. dOsteoporosis-related tests include bone formation tests, bone resorption tests, imaging tests, and BMD measurements