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Table 4 OR (95 % CI) for subjective hearing loss by musculoskeletal pain, socioeconomic conditions, measured hearing loss, depression and anxiety in women and mena

From: Are persons with fibromyalgia or other musculoskeletal pain more likely to report hearing loss? A HUNT study

  Subjective hearing loss Unadjusted Adjusted for age, education and hearing loss (model 1) In addition adjusted for anxiety and depression (model 2)
Yes No
N (%) N (%) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
WOMEN (21 808) 2 383 (10.93) 19 425 (89.07)    
Musculoskeletal pain      
 None 805 (6.79) 11 055 (93.21) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Local 558 (13.42) 3 600 (86.58) 2.129 (1.899–2.386) 1.901 (1.657–2.182) 1.915 (1.627–2.255)
 Widespread 1 020 (17.62) 4 770 (82.38) 2.937 (2.661–3.240) 3.145 (2.788–3.548) 3.073 (2.668–3.539)
Age
 20–35 156 (2.61) 5 829 (97.39) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 36–49 283 (4.22) 6 426 (95.78) 1.646 (1.349–2.007) 1.212 (0.987–1.490) 1.172 (0.940–1.460)
 50–64 552 (11.21) 4 371 (88.79) 4.719 (3.934–5.661) 2.202 (1.800–2.693) 2.220 (1.785–2.762)
 65+ 1 392 (33.21) 2 799 (66.79) 18.583 (15.654–22.059) 2.916 (2.357–3.608) 3.064 (2.415–3.887)
Education
 Primary school 1 470 (19.31) 6 143 (80.69) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 High school 505 (5.68) 8 387 (94.32) 0.252 (0.226–0.280) 0.761 (0..665–0.870) 0.771 (0.661–0.899)
 Higher 408 (7.69) 4 895 (92.31) 0.348 (0.310–0.391) 0.836 (0.726–0.964) 0.896 (0.756–1.061)
WHO hearing impairment
 None (<26 dB) 835 (4.52) 17 619 (95.48) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Mild (26–40 dB) 723 (33.32) 1 447 (66.68) 10.543 (9.419–11.805) 6.150 (5.367–7.047) 6.393 (5.445–7.506)
 Moderate (41–60 dB) 644 (67.08) 316 (32.92) 43.002 (36.959–50.035) 25.229 (21.099–30.168) 25.202 (20.300–31.286)
 Severe (>60 dB) 181 (80.80) 43 (19.20) 88.819 (63.239–124.745) 57.021 (39.859–81.574) 53.218 (34.360–82.427)
HADS-A ≥8b
 No 1 365 (8.61) 14 493 (91.39) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 405 (14.06) 2 476 (85.94) 1.737 (1.542–1.956)   1.703 (1.448–2.004)
HADS-D ≥8b
 No 1 707 (9.21) 16 830 (90.79) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 361 (20.74) 1 379 (79.25) 2.581 (2.275–2.928)   1.285 (1.063–1.552)
Nagelkerke R2     0.390 0.378
−2 Log likelihood     10 334.633 7 789.274
MEN (21 203) 3 576 (16.87) 17 627 (83.13)    
Musculoskeletal pain
 None 1 335 (10.82) 11 008 (89.18) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Local 884 (19.26) 3 707 (80.74) 1.966 (1.792–2.158) 1.851 (1.662–2.061) 1.796 (1.590–2.029)
 Widespread 1 357 (31.79) 2 912 (68.21) 3.843 (3.526–4.187) 3.739 (3.375–4.142) 3.618 (3.225–4.058)
Age
 20–35 263 (5.07) 4 926 (94.93) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 36–49 489 (7.60) 5 946 (92.40) 1.540 (1.320–1.798) 1.124 (0.957–1.321) 1.064 (0.898–1.261)
 50–64 1 076 (19.97) 4 311 (80.03) 4.675 (4.061–5.382) 1.978 (1.692–2.321) 1.934 (1.638–2.284)
 65+ 1 758 (41.70) 2 444 (58.30) 13.396 (11.665–15.385) 2.375 (2.001–2.818) 2.152 (1.784–2.597)
Education
 Primary school 1 658 (27.29) 4 418 (72.71) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 High school 1 313 (12.96) 8 822 (87.04) 0.397 (0.366–0.430) 0.892 (0.808–0.985) 0.884 (0.791–0.988)
 Higher 605 (12.12) 4 387 (87.88) 0.367 (0.332–0.407) 0.757 (0.671–0.854) 0.688 (0.598–0.791)
WHO hearing impairment
 None (<26 dB) 1 222 (7.50) 15 080 (92.50) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Mild (26–40 dB) 1 135 (37.36) 1 903 (62.64) 7.360 (6.701–8.084) 4.775 (4.270–5.341) 4.842 (4.361–5.600)
 Moderate (41–60 dB) 962 (62.63) 574 (37.37) 20.682 (18.368–23.288) 12.982 (11.221–15.020) 13.428 (11.428–16.060)
 Severe (>60 dB) 257 (78.59) 70 (21.41) 45.307 (34.566–59.386) 31.241 (23.419–41.677) 29.054 (20.611–40.956)
HADS-A ≥8b
 No 2 386 (14.25) 14 352 (85.75) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 448 (21.13) 1 672 (78.87) 1.612 (1.440–1.804)   1.443 (1.242–1.676)
HADS-D ≥8b
 No 2 577 (14.39) 1 533 (85.61) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 585 (30.02) 1 364 (69.98) 2.552 (2.296–2.836)   1.555 (1.342–1.801)
Nagelkerke R2     0.361 0.348
−2 Log likelihood     14 108.014 11 358.869
  1. HADS-A = self-reported questionnaire for symptoms of anxiety in which a score of ≥8 is consistent with clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety
  2. HADS-D = self-reported questionnaire for symptoms of depression in which a score of ≥8 is consistent with clinically relevant symptoms of depression
  3. aN in this analysis ranges from 21 808 to 18 210 and 21 203 to 18 355 for respectively women and men
  4. bMissing data from several participants on this variable